We saw 4 species of gulls on our trip to Svalbard, though there was a very big variation. We saw gulls anywhere from perched 2 feet away from a Polar Bear halfway up a cliff, to sitting on the middle of an iceberg in a glaciated bay! Here they are, the most frequently seen first:
A commoner relative of the Red-Legged Kittiwake of the northern Pacific, these gulls nested at every bird cliff we visited, including the one where Super Bear performed its stunt! The Kittiwakes nested at the top of the cliff, whereas the Brunnich’s and Black Guillemots nested at the bottom half, which mean that the Polar Bear was aiming for Brunnich’s Guillemot eggs and chicks (with the odd Glaucous Gull!). Adult Black-Legged Kittiwakes are relatively easy to identify, with a pure black eye; clean yellow bill; black wing tips; light grey wings; White underside and, obviously, black legs. Juveniles have a dark smudge behind the eye; a black collar; black bill; grey legs and a W on their wings, visible in flight. When visiting the glaciated bays, we often observed hundreds of Black-Legged Kittiwakes and Fulmars (not a gull, a tubenose sp.) flocking around the entrance of an ice cave: they were doing this to get at the nutrient-rich water flowing from underneath the glacier.
An older juvenile – lacking the W on the wings
Flocking around an ice cave
These are very large gulls that were seen practically everywhere and they are very brave too! Going back to the Super Bear story it was the Glaucous Gulls who were mobbing the Polar Bear, though the Bear did get a tad angry (which cost a poor Glaucous Gull its life). Going back down the food chain, we once observed a Glaucous Gull swallow a Kittiwake/Guillemot chick whole! Glaucous Gulls like to nest on large boulders near a bird cliff as Glaucous Gulls specialise in swooping up to a ledge-nester’s nest and stealing their chick or egg! Glaucous Gulls are very similar to Common Gulls, Herring Gulls etc., but the key identification features are: considerably larger than Herring Gulls etc.; Pink feet; pinky-orange legs; white head, neck and underside; grey wings and a yellow iris with a black pupil.
Glaucous Gull with chick
I believe that an Ivory Gull is high on a birder’s wish list, a fact that I only found out when I got home from a trip where I saw four! The ornithologist on board the ship said that he wouldn’t guarantee one on a cruise, though we saw our first two at the same place on day 1! They were fleeting glimpses of flyovers but it is hard to mistake these beautiful birds with anything else on the island, the adults have pure white bodies; ink black eyes; a grey bill tipped with yellow and orange and black feet. The juveniles are similar, just with black dashes or arrowheads on the wings. The third Ivory Gull was seen on a zodiac cruise of another glaciated bay, it literally sat on an iceberg right next to the zodiac as if it was sitting on eggs. That was my favourite Ivory Gull sighting because it was the only time I saw one not in the air and I got a photo! As the first Ivory Gull was seen on day 1, our last Ivory Gull circled the ship as we pulled in into Longyearbyen on our final morning!
These are very small gulls and we only saw 2 of them, at the same place. The place we saw them was an island called Moffen Island, where there were many Walrus hauled out on the beach. Tony, the ornithologist, said he only sees them 1/3 of the times he comes here and he doesn’t even come here all the time! Fortunately I was the first person to spot one, it landed in front of the main group of Walrus then flew off behind them. There are only 1 or 2 pairs on the island, so luckily we saw one pair a little later. They look rather like Black-Headed Gulls, though with a much greyer head and a yellow tip to the bill. They also have a large black patch on the wing which is visible in flight, ranging from the ‘elbow’ to the wing tips. Moffen island is a reserve and walrus sanctuary, which meant that we were not allowed to come more than 300 metres from the island, so we had to observe them from the ship.