Not always straightforward

During my Garden Bioblitz of the the 6th June, I found a moth case on a cotoneaster leaf. I tried to identify it by using this webpage and I thought it looked most like Coleophora trigeminella. I was very excited by this as the species hasn’t been recorded on Cotoneaster in the UK before, only in Europe. Could I have discovered a new foodplant for this species in Britain?

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I emailed the Surrey moth recorder, Mr Graham Collins, with news of my finds. I asked him whether it was likely to be Coleophora trigeminella or something else. He kindly responded saying that he didn’t think that the larval case belonged to this species but Coleophora serratella which is ‘probably the commonest species of British Coleophorid’ according to the UK Moths website. I was quite disappointed!

However, why was it on a cotoneaster leaf? The larvae usually feed on hazel, birch, elm or alder. It is most likely that the larvae fell from the foodplant (there is a birch tree straight above the cotoneaster) on to the leaf where it formed the case, or the larvae wandered off the leaf looking for a better place to create its case.

When I returned to the same leaf nearly a fortnight later, on the 18th June, I was given a huge surprise. The adult moth had emerged from the case overnight and was resting parallel to the case! It was so fresh in fact that the antennae were not resting forward in the typical coleophorid fashion but running backwards along the body! I sent this photo to Mr Collins.

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I thought that it was too light for Coleophora serratella and the ochre colour matched Coleophora trigeminella. Could I have found a species of moth that hasn’t been seen in Surrey for nearly half a century? Unfortunately that was not to be the case. Mr Collins responded writing that he now thought that the moth is either Coleophora flavipennella or Coleophora lutipennella. The larval stages of both of these moths feed on oak leaves, which makes sense as there are several large oak trees which also have branches above the cotoneaster bush. The larva probably fell from the leaves.

However, it is not possible to separate moths of those species without examination of the genitalia. For this I sent the moths off to Mr Collins by post and he kindly looked at them under the microscope. The genitalia point to Coleophora flavipennella, which I think might be the least common of the pair although I am not certain. The genitalia of C. flavipennella look like this:

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Compared to the genitalia of C. lutipennella:

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There is quite a lot of difference! This is a new species for me and I hope this blog post shows that often identification is not that straightforward.

(genitalia photos from http://www.mothdissection.co.uk)

A Quick Walk down Mill Lane

 

This morning I walked along Mill Lane which runs along the east side of Hedgecourt Lake. What struck me first was the height that the Water Dock had grown to compared to the last time I visited the lake. It was at least the height of me if not taller. This is not unusual though, some plants can grow to more than 2 metres. This plant can grow in very tough conditions, these ones grow on the concrete wall of the lake against the hard wind and the severe waves that sometimes form. Equally large were the leaf mines that covered almost half of each leaf. Some leaf-mined leaves were about 75 centimetres long, so the leaf mines were huge! Whose larvae are growing up inside those leaf mines?

To identify the culprit, I visited a site I use regularly: http://www.ukflymines.co.uk
I went to the Rumex (Dock) section of the site and I saw that luckily there are not that many leaf mines on Dock in Britain. From the photos on that page I think that my species is Pegomya solennis. Pegomya solennis is a species of fly, unfortunately not new for my list although very impressive. This species is not a large fly, but the key to its very big mines lies in teamwork. In each mine there are two or more larvae that at first work together making a wide corridor. They then separate and each form a large blotch which all fuse together making one large blotch from which they feed. Sometimes the blotch size is increased even further when the blotch joins the blotch from a different leaf mine.

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The larvae feed on the leaf from inside these blotches.

Along the grassy verge between the lane and the lake there are several large patches of Bird’s-foot Trefoil, Ribwort Plantain and Black Medick. I thought these large patches might hold some specialist species but alas not much was swept from them using my net. The only species of interest was a single Platycheirus peltatus, a species of hoverfly and my 94th fly species on my Pan-species List.

Moving on, it was still windy and not too warm so most of the wildlife was hiding away. I stepped down onto one of the fishing jetties to get a closer view of the lake wall without the risk of falling in to the nippy water. On top of the concrete wall was a hole, which was occupied…

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The white spherical object in the centre of the hole is an egg sac, which belongs to a very large spider. I tried to coax it out from the hole, but it wouldn’t come. I’m not certain what it is, but one possibility is the mouse spider, Scotophaeus blackwalli. However it is usually found in sheltered places indoors so I’m not sure what it is doing on this exposed wall if I am correct.

On some more Water Dock further along I noticed a colony of aphids. It is often not hard to identify aphids when you see a colony on a particular species of plant. For this one I just searched with Google ‘aphids on dock’ and I was presented with two options: Aphis rumicis and Aphis fabae. Aphis rumicis is more plant-specific, being found on mainly dock and sometimes on rhubarb. Aphis fabae (the Black Bean Aphid), is much less so being found on a wide range of vegetables. Unfortunately the two are quite similar, although I am leaning towards A. fabae due to the paler legs shown in many of the photos I have seen on this species. My 50th hemipteroid (bug) for my Pan-species List! In my (not great) photo, the colony appears to be being attended by a Lasius ant.

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Suddenly the sun emerged from behind the clouds and everything seemed to suddenly wake up. There were loads of umbellifers on the lake shore which were great for invertebrates although I had little time to examine them closely. What I did find, however, is a mini-miner. These are very tiny bees in the genus Andrena, which I don’t come across too often. Their larger relatives in the same genus I more often come across. There are 10 mini-miner species compared to 57 other Andrena species, although I find them much harder to identify. Also, many of them have very restricted distributions.

I potted this tiny bee and when I arrived back home I took a few hasty shots though the gap between the lid and the pot. The long, very white hair caught my eye and helped me when I attempted to identify it using Steven Falk’s Field Guide to the Bees of Great Britain and Ireland. Currently I think the most likely species is Andrena niveata, the Long-fringed Mini-miner. Modern records are restricted to South-east England and it is not very common, therefore I am tentative with my identification and I will hopefully get it checked under the microscope or with an expert. In the book it says: ‘the body hairs are much whiter than in other mini-miners…the overall effect is thus of a very silvery, strongly marked mini-miner’. This definitely fits my bee.

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I was very pleased with the number of interesting and new species that I found this morning, given the short amount of time and the unfavourable weather conditions. I can’t wait until the summer holidays when there will be more time to explore!

Bad News for Wildlife

Yesterday  the UK narrowly voted to leave the European Union. Many naturalists, including Sir David Attenborough, were saddened by this outcome. It doesn’t look good for wildlife in the UK, especially farmland wildlife.

The Wildlife Trusts manage lots of farmland for wildlife and 6% of their income comes from the EU. This is due to funding that The Wildlife Trusts get when they create wildlife habitat on the farmland they own. When the UK is not part of the EU, The Wildlife Trusts will not receive that vital 6%. This could mean that less management can be carried out for farmland wildlife.

The Common Agricultural Policy is a policy which, among other things, provides financial support from the EU on environmental management. This is similar to the funding The Wildlife Trusts receive: environmental management that takes place on farms can be funded by the CAP. The CAP also influences farm management decisions within the EU which we would not benefit from after we officially leave the EU.

The Birds and Habitats Directives hope to contribute to saving nature within the European Union by conserving particular species which fit a number of criteria. It is proven that species listed under Annex 1 of the Birds Directive have had population increases not experienced by species not under Annex 1. Outside of the European Union, this effect has not been observed. Therefore, now that we are leaving the EU, the UK population of species listed under Annex 1 might not display the same increases as the populations within the EU due to the Birds and Habitats Directives no longer applying.

The EU is the most important legal driving force for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which is a critical measure for marine wildlife conservation. Without the influence of the EU directives the development of the marine protected areas would be at risk. Marine protected areas are very important in the UK due to the amazing biodiversity of species in UK seas. Without protection the biodiversity will be devalued.

International impacts might also be felt. Now that we will be without the support of the European Union, the United Kingdom might try to create agreements internationally which benefit nature conservation. However, due to the UK’s neighbours being members of the EU, they might be less willing to agree to join an additional agreement outside of EU laws.

 

However, just maybe, the future UK government will be highly committed to conserving nature. Like me, Boris Johnson severely dislikes Grey Squirrels and would greatly prefer Red Squirrels to replace them. Therefore if Boris Johnson does become the new Prime Minister, more work could be done to save the Red Squirrel. Hopefully the environment will be higher up on the agenda than it is at the moment. Just maybe all these European directives and the funding will be replaced. It should be a priority.

The NBN Awards 2016

Last year I was very lucky to receive the Gilbert White Youth Award for Terrestrial and Freshwater Recording, which you can read about here.

I have been passionate about nature for as long as I can remember, and I visit my local reserve or just comb my garden for interesting bugs at every opportunity. Winning an award for what I love doing was such a surprise, but it has inspired me to take an even greater interest in the natural world that is everywhere around us. The Gilbert White award demonstrates the importance of biological recording and highlights the importance of the records collected for the future of biodiversity on this planet! I am proud to have been the inaugural winner.

So, this year, for the second time, the National Biodiversity Network is presenting awards for biological recording and information sharing. There are 6 awards this year, which are:

  • Gilbert White youth award for terrestrial and freshwater wildlife
  • Gilbert White adult award for terrestrial and freshwater wildlife
  • David Robertson youth award for marine and coastal wildlife
  • David Robertson adult award for marine and coastal wildlife
  • A group award
  • John Sawyer NBN Open Data Award

All of the awards apart from the John Sawyer NBN Open Data Award require nominations of people who you think are suitable for the award. The youth awards are for people under 18 years of age by the deadline. If you know someone who has made an outstanding contribution to the world of biological recording, please nominate them here before the 31st July.

 

Mongolian Dinosaur Bones

This is my first post on bones, I would love to do more but I’m not the luckiest of people with finding skeletons. I once found a freshly dead Robin, but somehow it was stolen under a bucket that was still upright. Unfortunately the bones that I am writing about today were not my find, but my dad’s.

My dad was very fortunate to be able to visit Mongolia on a birding trip while I was still beavering away at school. Understandably I was very jealous. But it wasn’t all birding, he visited the Flaming Cliffs and dug up some dinosaur bone fragments!

Mongolia is well known for its paleontology. The first ever dinosaur eggs were discovered in the Flaming Cliffs site of Mongolia’s Gobi desert. These eggs were discovered in 1923 by paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews who went on many paleontology expeditions throughout China and Mongolia. Chapman Andrews removed many of his finds from Mongolia. Now of course all bones must be left in situ, so the desert is strewn with small fragments. But there must still be big discoveries waiting to be made.

There are a few ways to tell bones from stones. The easiest method, and the one my Dad used, is that when a dinosaur bone is placed on your tongue, it should stick. It did, surprisingly well!

1 Garden, 24 Hours, 184 species!

…and counting! Last Sunday, the 5th, I took part in the Garden Bioblitz for the first time. The aim of a bioblitz is to record every species you find in an area within a period of time. For the Garden Bioblitz, you record every species you find in your garden during a 24 hour period.

To begin my Garden Bioblitz I looked through the moth trap from the previous night. There was a very wide range of species, including 23 that were new to me. The highlights were:

  • Great Oak Beauty – annual in Domewood, but Nationally Scarce B (NB).
  • Cacao Moth – usually found indoors in stores of products such as nuts, almonds, tobacco and cacao. I’ll be checking my muesli from now on…
  • Scorched Wing – a beautiful moth which is also classed as Local. There were 8 in the trap.
  • Peach Blossom – a great moth with a great name although quite common.
  • Cypress Carpet – quite an uncommon moth, which arrived in Britain through its host plant, cypress. There are lots of Lawson Cypress trees in the garden which probably explains its occurrence here.
  • Diamond-back Moth – for some reason, I rarely see immigrant moths. The Diamond-back Moth is only the third immigrant moth I’ve recorded. I recorded it for the first time during the last weekend of May, but there were 29 in the trap!

I also caught a very interesting beetle that had a very pungent smell. I thought it was a sexton beetle and I was right. However, I wasn’t too sure which species it was. It was all black and luckily there are only two all-black species in the British Isles: Necrodes littoralis (the Shore Sexton Beetle) and Nicrophorus humator (the Black Sexton Beetle). It turned out to be the Shore Sexton Beetle due to the antennal clubs not being brushes as in the Black Sexton Beetle. Thanks to Chris Brooks on iSpot for the identification. Sexton beetles are interesting because they feed on dead animals. If the dead animal is small then they will bury it to keep other scavengers from taking it. They do this by excavating the soil under the body so that the dead animal sinks into the ground. The adults lay eggs nearby and when the larvae hatch they crawl to the dead animal to feed and even be fed by the adult. Even though this beetle was caught in the moth trap there isn’t necessarily a dead animal nearby as they can fly quite long distances in order to find their food.

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After I had finished looking through the moth trap, I walked around the garden listing all the wild plants. Before I added the plants I already had a list of almost 70 and there was still lots to identify! Other non-moth highlights included a Canada Goose flock flying over and the first Grey Heron I have seen fly over the garden in more than a year. After I finished off the plants I had breakfast, meaning that I had a list of 130 before breakfast. Things were going well!

It wasn’t just plants that I added to my list on the walk around the garden. It was quite early but there were still some insects on the wing, including Rose Sawflies, Speckled Wood butterflies, Large White butterflies and various bees. I was even lucky to see the young fox that has been hanging around the garden for the past few weeks. It is not that shy, here is the photo I took when I first spotted it:

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After breakfast I looked under the logs and stumps in my garden. As always, they were brimming with slugs, beetles, woodlice and other creatures. The most common ground beetle was Agonum emarginatum, a species usually associated with damp habitats near freshwater. This makes sense as most of the stumps were near our tiny pond. The list of slug species was quite good too: Budapest Slug, Leopard Slug, Yellow Slug, Dusky Slug, Greenhouse Slug and Ambigolimax nyctelius, the species I found new to Surrey last year. When I first found it I had to send it off to Wales to get the genitalia looked at, but this confirmed the scientist’s suspicions that there were slight morphological differences between Ambigolimax nyctelius and the Greenhouse Slug. In my experience, Ambigolimax nyctelius is more boldly marked than the Greenhouse Slug.

Finally, the highlight of my bioblitz was finding an amazing fly species that I have been looking for in my garden since Tony Davis told me that it was likely to appear here. It’s not rare or scarce, but it is impressive. It is a species of hoverfly that mimics bees. It has many different forms that each mimic different bee species. It’s called the Narcissus Bulb Fly or the Greater Bulb Fly and it’s eggs are laid in bulbs of various species such as garden daffodils. I found a mating pair on a Bulbous Buttercup, perhaps the plant that the eggs were about to be laid in? The male seemed to be an Early Bumblebee mimic:

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However, I’m not sure which species the female was impersonating:

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It seemed to be all black except for the last 4 or 5 abdominal segments, which were off-white.

So, I’m currently on 184 species and hope to identify a few more for my bioblitz list.

 

Underground Birds’ Nests!

This afternoon I was very lucky to be able to fit in a short trip to an undisclosed site in Ashdown Forest to see a very rare plant: the Bird’s-nest Orchid. I have been asked to keep the precise location a secret as there are only two individual plants flowering at the moment and I believe there might be some collectors keen to get their hands on them. Luckily Ashdown Forest is a huge place and these orchids are incredibly easy to miss.

I first learnt about these orchids being present at Ashdown Forest – one of the largest areas of woodland and more importantly open heathland in the South East – on the Sussex Botanical Recording Society website. There is a new ‘Latest Sightings’ feature on the website and I have been lucky enough to post a ‘Latest Sighting’ on there already, on the Krauss’s Clubmoss. You can read the orchid latest sighting here and my clubmoss latest sighting here.

The beech woodland where the plant was growing was very nice except there was very little diversity of ground flora. I think this may be due to the very large population of deer, particularly the Fallow Deer, which have over-grazed the area. However, there were some nice patches of late-flowering Bluebells as well as Ground Ivy, Germander Speedwell and not-yet-flowering Wood-Sorrel. In fact I saw a couple of female Fallow Deer while we were there, although they were very shy and were gone before I could see more than their heads with their sensitive ears standing up rigidly, on high alert. Deer were hunted in Ashdown Forest in the past so they must have learnt to be very wary of humans even now when deer-hunting has been discontinued.

There were some very large and beautiful Beech trees in the woodland that seemed to support a plethora of life. In one tiny patch of about 3 square centimetres there were no less than 5 adult Athous haemorrhoidalis, a common beetle whose larvae feed on tree roots. I also watched my first Spotted Flycatcher of the year flycatching from the mighty limbs of a particularly grand Beech tree.

We carried on down the road, checking every beech clump on the left side of the road to see if we could spot the easily-missed orchids. Surely we were supposed to be looking on the left side of the road? My dad agreed and we continued, starting to lose hope. We soon reached a point which was surely much farther than the directions had intended. Where were they? We must have missed them. We gloomily trod back up to the car, disappointed that we hadn’t seen these special plants. My eyes drifted over to the side of the road we hadn’t been looking at, where I stopped suddenly. I stood staring at two beige plants with disbelief. We had found the two Bird’s-nest Orchids! They were looking exactly as they had in the photo on the latest sightings page on the SBRS website which was taken 8 days before. Here are some photos and a very short mini-documentary:

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