In my garden, we have a couple of large ‘wild areas’ where we don’t do any management and just see what grows there. One is in clear light and unshaded all day, and has therefore developed into a nice mini-meadow with Common Spotted Orchids, Field Horsetail, Meadow Buttercups,Common Ragwort, Common Fleabane, Bristly Ox-tongue, thistle, Red Campion, Common Knapweed and other meadow plants and wildflowers.
On the other hand, the other is under a canopy of Oak and Birch trees and therefore does not get much light. Not many species grow here, just a bed of nearly foot-high grass. However, this grass has become home to a number of froghopper species. And at this time of year I start to see what is colloquially known as ‘cuckoo-spit’ appear on the grass stems.
Cuckoo-spit is a white frothy liquid that is secreted by the nymphs of the froghoppers that I see in my wild area. As these nymphs secrete this spit-like liquid they have earned the name ‘spittle-bugs’. And the ‘spit’ provides a number of benefits to the developing froghopper as well:
- It keeps it out of sight from predators/parasites
- It has a vile taste to deter predators
- It keeps the insect moist, without it the insect could dry up
- It keeps the insect warm in cold conditions and cool in warm conditions.
I noticed that in some of the spit I could see small brown things inside, which I couldn’t see in other cuckoo-spit:
In order to see what this was inside the cuckoo-spit, I very gently eased it out without damaging it too much. What I found was a froghopper nymph (spittle-bug), which is exactly what I had expected to find:
However, there was also something else within the spit. It looked to me to be the old and out-grown skin of the froghopper nymph. The nymph was clearly too large for this skin so it had pushed its way out of it, causing it to be visible from the outside. A new skin will now harden and provide some extra protection within the cuckoo-spit. Having photographed the nymph and old skin from which it emerged, I delicately returned the nymph to its spit home and I watched it burrow back inside and become hidden from the world around it.