Mid-March Moth Madness

After a snowy delay, last weekend it seemed like spring had finally sprung and temperatures rose into double figures. Looking at the forecast for this weekend and into next week however, it looks like the wintry weather will return once again which is very odd for this time of year. I’m usually a fan of a bit of snow, but only at the appropriate times of year. So I decided to write this blog post to try and keep my spring feeling going for as long as possible, before the snow showers begin to move in from the east again.

Saturday night was the first time I have put my moth trap out this year. In previous years I have been a little more keen, with very little reward and sometimes even null counts at this early stage in spring, so I decided to hold it off until now. And with the Beast from the East only about a week gone, my hopes were not particularly high. Although I was in for a surprise.

Most of the time, I just leave my trap out for the whole night and check it in the morning. However, on the off-chance of something notable (or anything at all!) being in there, I decided to look down from my bedroom window just an hour or so after switching on the light. To my surprise I saw what seemed to be an Oak Beauty already within the trap, so I rushed down to check if there was much else about.

To my immense surprise, there were at least 20 moths flying around the trap and on the nearby house wall. Most were March Moths as well as several more Oak Beauties, along with a couple of Tortricodes alternella and a Common Quaker. Already we had recorded around twice as many moths as I usually get in an early-spring night!

I was more than keen to check the trap the following morning. Unsurprisingly, there were moths everywhere, with the final tally being 55! I would be happy with that in May or September, let alone the first half of March! I will run through a few of the stand out highlights:

Small Brindled Beauty

This was the rarest moth that I caught last night, and the second time I’ve caught this species, the previous occasion being early March last year. It is most common in southern England, becoming rarer further north although classified as ‘local’ – found in less than 300 sites nationally. The females of this species are one of many winter and spring species that are apterous – lacking wings. The females of many of these apterous species seem completely unlike most moths to me, although I’m yet to find one myself.


Small Brindled Beauty

Dotted Border

This species is unique among the early spring moths as it is one of the few Geometrid moths out at this time of year. In my experience it is usually the Noctuids (such as the Clouded Drabs, Hebrew Characters and the Quaker species) that are the most commonly trapped, although the most abundant species caught during this night were the 18 Oak Beauties which is a slightly unusual Geometrid species. The Geometrids can be distinguished by the way they hold their wings; most Geometrids hold their wings out to the side whereas most Noctuids fold their wings over their abdomen.


Dotted Border

This species can usually be identified by the row of dots running along the bottom of the wing which you can see in the photo above. However, it is a variable species throughout its distribution and there are forms which are very dark making the row of dots (the dotted border) very hard to see.

Clouded Drab

This species is quite common especially where its foodplant Oak is plentiful although, despite its name, it is can be really nicely patterned. It is another species that is really variable, with many colour forms. We caught three, one of them in particularly was particularly good-looking, with its pattern enhanced by the flash on my camera.


Clouded Drab

Hopefully the upcoming cold snap will be the last of the winter, and spring will be allowed to continue unabated. I look forward to moth trapping further once it warms up again, hopefully we’ll continue with some good numbers!

Final Tally

  • Common Quaker 3
  • March Moth 9
  • Oak Beauty 18
  • Hebrew Character 4
  • Tortricodes alternella 2
  • Small Brindled Beauty 1
  • Dotted Border 5
  • Clouded Drab 3
  • Small Quaker 8
  • Chestnut 1
  • Brindled Pug 1



Pan-species Listing: Top 15 New Species of 2017

2017 has been another fantastic year for me with regards to pan-species listing. I am pleased that I am continuing to add species even throughout the quieter months and although I am sure to slow down sooner or later as the number of species I can add is not infinite, I am still yet to break my steady stride. I have managed to delve into groups I haven’t tackled before such as lacewings and springtails. In this blog post I will list my favourite species added to my Pan-species List in 2017, out of about 700 added this year. If I have written a separate blog post about that particular species, the species name is hyperlinked to that post.

15. Marsh Frog

Adding new non-bird vertebrates is not easy, and so it was great to see several Marsh Frogs on a mid-June day at the nearby Warnham Local Nature Reserve. Although they’re non-native, they come in many different shades of bright green and so are much more attractive than the Common frogs!


A couple of Marsh Frogs on the edge of a pool in the summer sunshine

14. Purple Toothwort

Plants are more regular pan-species listing additions for me, and although I’m still getting to grips with their huge diversity I have found that attending some Sussex Botanical Recording Society meetings throughout the year has been really helpful. This plant however was found in March, one of my earliest plant additions of the year, at Wakehurst Place. It’s one of several really fascinating plant species in the UK which lack chlorophyll to photosynthesise and therefore gain their nutrients directly from other nearby plants!


A patch of the bizarre leaf-less Purple Toothwort, one of many found at Wakehurst Place

13. Waxwing

The winter of 2016/17 was one of the much hoped-for Waxwing ‘invasion’ years, and therefore it would be rude not to see some! The first flock I saw comprised over 30 birds, which is an amazing number for so far south in the UK. It was at a typical setting, an industrial estate! Waxwings often prefer these habitats because of the wealth of berry-producing bushes that grow there. I also saw a couple more later in the year, feeding in a Davidia (Paper Handkerchief) tree at Wakehurst Place, the fruits of which are large and kiwi-like. Very weird food for Waxwings!


A Waxwing at Wakehurst Place, among the Davidia fruits.

12. Vestal

I have been moth-trapping in my garden for a few years, yet save for many Diamond-back Moths I hadn’t caught any migrants in my trap. Autumn presented a window of favourable air-flow from southern Europe and North Africa, which seemed likely to bring decent numbers of migrant moths to our shores. I put my trap out with anticipation on a couple of occasions that week, and on the second I caught exactly what I had been hoping for: 3 Vestals!


One of the Vestals on the wall by the moth trap. They’re not the most attractive of moths but I was really pleased to see them!

11. Stemonitopsis typhina

I have very few slime-moulds on my list like this one, partly because they’re so tricky to identify. However this species, which I came across during a Sussex Fungus Group outing, was a great excuse to research their fascinating life cycle.


10. Wryneck

In September, I was really lucky to be able to venture up to Spurn Bird Observatory in Yorkshire for the annual Migration Festival. Spurn is undoubtedly one of the major sites for rare birds in England and even quite early on in the vagrant season I managed to see brilliant birds such as Long-billed Dowitcher, Barred Warbler, Long-tailed Skua, Short-eared Owl, Caspian Gull, Roseate Tern, Black Tern, Little Stint, Little Gull, and one of my highlights, a Wryneck. This bird showed beautifully well, feeding on the cliff edge near the Sandy Beaches caravan site. It was so great to watch that I visited the bird three times over the weekend to take in the marvellously intricate plumage.


Wryneck, taking a break from feeding on ants on the cliffside vegetation.

9. Cut-grass

This rather unassuming rare species of wetland grass has a deadly secret! Its blades are exactly that, as sharp as a knife. I didn’t want to test the sharpness on the Sussex Botanical Recording Society outing to Amberley Wildbrooks on which we saw it, however the blades are apparently able to slice through human skin thanks to the minute stiff hairs along the edges!


Cut-grass: blades of steel

8. Devil’s Fingers

I’m sure that many people who are lucky to come across a Devil’s Fingers fungus by accident will not be certain that this intriguing organism is natural at all. It bears resemblance to an octopus that had been stuck into the ground upside down, with only its red tentacles emerging from the soil. Furthermore, the tentacles seem to have begun to decompose, with a foul-smelling covering of dark brown goo attracting flies that disperse the fungus’ spores.


The Devil’s Fingers fungus that we came across on a Sussex Botanical Recording Society meeting at Chailey Common.

7. Green-winged Orchid

Orchids are surprisingly one of the groups that I haven’t seen many of. During the course of the year I added a few species, no rarities unless you count the Greater Tongue-orchids of dubious origin at Wakehurst Place. The Green-winged Orchid was my first orchid species of the year, at Danehill Churchyard. It was great to see the orchids with the nice church in the background, yet I think that the lawn where they were growing was scheduled for mowing. I didn’t have a chance to revisit to check if they were left alone or not, however hopefully they did have the opportunity to flower a little longer.


A dark-purple Green-winged Orchid in front of Danehill Church. There were also light pink varieties present.

6. Beewolf

One of the highlights of my summer holiday was a two-day course led by Steven Falk on solitary bee identification at the fantastic Rye Harbour Sussex Wildlife Trust reserve. Of course, although we identified huge numbers of solitary bees, it wasn’t all about them on the weekend. We also came across a large wasp known as the Bee Wolf, which is the invertebrate equivalent of the wild canine. Females will catch adult Honey Bees and bring them back to their nest hole, where they will place the bees in a chamber. It’s within this chamber that the young Beewolf develops. At Rye Harbour, we were lucky to watch Beewolves excavating their nest holes and bringing Honey Bees into the chambers.


5. Queen-of-Spain Fritillary

Birds are the group of organisms most likely to be associated with the word ‘vagrant’. However, during the summer a fortunate lepidopterist found no less than three Queen-of-Spain Fritillaries on his transect near Peacehaven, a species that is unable to breed in the UK as they can’t survive the cold winters. They are therefore very rare summer visitors at best. I am very grateful to the farmer Colin Appleton for allowing lots of keen naturalists onto his land to watch these three regal butterflies ‘lekking’ around a bonfire. Although they apparently travel in groups, explaining why three arrived at once, they are very territorial and the bonfire was the central spot for their territorial disputes, like a boxing ring.


One of the Queen-of-Spain Fritillaries basking in the sun near the bonfire.

4. Moon Carrot

This wonderfully named plant is not very distinctive, looking very similar to more common umbelliferous plants such as hogweed, yet it’s rare nationally. To make up for its likeness to the other members of its family, it has chosen a spectacular site at which to grow. What seems to be the only modern site for this species in Sussex is the cliffs at Seaford, near the Cuckmere. Some individual plants grow right on the cliff-edge, and look marvellous with the Seven Sisters cliffs in the background. They’ve even made the cover of the new Flora of Sussex!


The Moon Carrot is so-called as it apparently glows in the moonlight!

3. Wood Warbler

I loved listening to a male Wood Warbler sing its heart out at an undisclosed site in Sussex this year, although it was quite a sad experience. This was the first Wood Warbler on territory for 3 years in Sussex, a county where it once used to be a regular breeder. The energy the warbler put into its song was incredible, for weeks it would sing as loud as it could non-stop while hopping tirelessly from tree to tree. Yet due to the species’ rare status in Sussex these days, there was never a female to respond.


A brief pause from what must be absolutely exhausting for the Wood Warbler

2. Lesser Glow-worm

Of all the species included in this top-15 blog post, this one is my most recent find. In fact it was just before Christmas that I found a beetle larva beneath a log at Hedgecourt NR. I sent it to Max Barclay, the beetle curator at NHM London asking what it could be as I was stuck. I had only managed to find one possibility, Phosphaenus hemipterus or the Lesser Glow-worm, however I doubted it was that as it is the rarest of all the glow-worms found in the UK. As far as I know there is only one known modern-day colony in the whole of the country, at a site in Hampshire. To my surprise Max kindly replied saying that he did think it was indeed a Lesser Glow-worm, and he had even received confirmation from another expert on glow-worms! Now we’re just waiting to hear back from some specialists in the Czech Republic before we can be 100% certain, yet it certainly seems highly likely I’ve found quite a rarity!

beetle larva

Despite a thorough search of around 20 logs a few days later, I was unable to find another larva.

1. Wart-biter

At number one, the Wart-biter must be one of my favourite finds from this year. It’s a massive, elusive bush-cricket that’s hard to find at only 5 known modern-day sites in the UK. I visited one of those sites, Mount Caburn on the South Downs, with the Amateur Entomologists’ Society in August specifically to look for this species. The easiest way to find them is to listen for the stridulation (singing), however they only stridulate on warm, calm days and there was a heavy band of rain moving in. I decided to use the highly sophisticated technique of walking around and hoping to chance upon one and it worked! A female jumped from my feet as I was walking, to land in a perfect position for all of the attendees of the field meeting to get an excellent view.


The Wart-biter gets its name from the old Swedish method of getting rid of warts: allowing this cricket to bite them off!

There concludes my top-15 pan-species listing additions of 2017. It was very hard to condense all the brilliant finds into just my 15 favourites, this blog post could easily be 10,000 words long.



30 Days Wild – Day 1

This year, for the second time, I will be taking part in 30 Days Wild, a campaign by the Wildlife Trusts to get as many people as possible doing something wild every day for 30 days in June. Last year was a great success – 1.8 million random acts of wildness were carried out!

Day 1

Image result for 30 days wild day 1

This morning I went through our garden moth trap, which I haven’t been able to put out for quite a while. It was excellent to see the increase in moths as the year has progressed.  Despite good numbers of some beautiful moth species such as the Orange Footman and Scorched Wing moths, the highlight for me was probably the Cockchafer beetles that we caught.

Cockchafers are large, clumsy and widespread beetles found in woodlands and often in gardens, especially with Oak trees. They can most commonly be found during May and early June, and one of the easiest ways to find them is when they’re attracted to light. They don’t move very quickly and are quite happily handled, making them a favourite among wildlife enthusiasts due to their seemingly playful nature.

A few weeks ago I was fortunate to get a new camera, a bridge camera this time, and as I’ve not had it very long I am eager to try out all the functions. This morning I decided to try and film some stuff on it, and I was lucky to capture a Cockchafer taking off from our garden fence. And, using a simple slo-mo app on my phone I was able to slow down the take-off to 25% speed. You can view the video here:

1 Garden, 24 Hours, 184 species!

…and counting! Last Sunday, the 5th, I took part in the Garden Bioblitz for the first time. The aim of a bioblitz is to record every species you find in an area within a period of time. For the Garden Bioblitz, you record every species you find in your garden during a 24 hour period.

To begin my Garden Bioblitz I looked through the moth trap from the previous night. There was a very wide range of species, including 23 that were new to me. The highlights were:

  • Great Oak Beauty – annual in Domewood, but Nationally Scarce B (NB).
  • Cacao Moth – usually found indoors in stores of products such as nuts, almonds, tobacco and cacao. I’ll be checking my muesli from now on…
  • Scorched Wing – a beautiful moth which is also classed as Local. There were 8 in the trap.
  • Peach Blossom – a great moth with a great name although quite common.
  • Cypress Carpet – quite an uncommon moth, which arrived in Britain through its host plant, cypress. There are lots of Lawson Cypress trees in the garden which probably explains its occurrence here.
  • Diamond-back Moth – for some reason, I rarely see immigrant moths. The Diamond-back Moth is only the third immigrant moth I’ve recorded. I recorded it for the first time during the last weekend of May, but there were 29 in the trap!

I also caught a very interesting beetle that had a very pungent smell. I thought it was a sexton beetle and I was right. However, I wasn’t too sure which species it was. It was all black and luckily there are only two all-black species in the British Isles: Necrodes littoralis (the Shore Sexton Beetle) and Nicrophorus humator (the Black Sexton Beetle). It turned out to be the Shore Sexton Beetle due to the antennal clubs not being brushes as in the Black Sexton Beetle. Thanks to Chris Brooks on iSpot for the identification. Sexton beetles are interesting because they feed on dead animals. If the dead animal is small then they will bury it to keep other scavengers from taking it. They do this by excavating the soil under the body so that the dead animal sinks into the ground. The adults lay eggs nearby and when the larvae hatch they crawl to the dead animal to feed and even be fed by the adult. Even though this beetle was caught in the moth trap there isn’t necessarily a dead animal nearby as they can fly quite long distances in order to find their food.


After I had finished looking through the moth trap, I walked around the garden listing all the wild plants. Before I added the plants I already had a list of almost 70 and there was still lots to identify! Other non-moth highlights included a Canada Goose flock flying over and the first Grey Heron I have seen fly over the garden in more than a year. After I finished off the plants I had breakfast, meaning that I had a list of 130 before breakfast. Things were going well!

It wasn’t just plants that I added to my list on the walk around the garden. It was quite early but there were still some insects on the wing, including Rose Sawflies, Speckled Wood butterflies, Large White butterflies and various bees. I was even lucky to see the young fox that has been hanging around the garden for the past few weeks. It is not that shy, here is the photo I took when I first spotted it:


After breakfast I looked under the logs and stumps in my garden. As always, they were brimming with slugs, beetles, woodlice and other creatures. The most common ground beetle was Agonum emarginatum, a species usually associated with damp habitats near freshwater. This makes sense as most of the stumps were near our tiny pond. The list of slug species was quite good too: Budapest Slug, Leopard Slug, Yellow Slug, Dusky Slug, Greenhouse Slug and Ambigolimax nyctelius, the species I found new to Surrey last year. When I first found it I had to send it off to Wales to get the genitalia looked at, but this confirmed the scientist’s suspicions that there were slight morphological differences between Ambigolimax nyctelius and the Greenhouse Slug. In my experience, Ambigolimax nyctelius is more boldly marked than the Greenhouse Slug.

Finally, the highlight of my bioblitz was finding an amazing fly species that I have been looking for in my garden since Tony Davis told me that it was likely to appear here. It’s not rare or scarce, but it is impressive. It is a species of hoverfly that mimics bees. It has many different forms that each mimic different bee species. It’s called the Narcissus Bulb Fly or the Greater Bulb Fly and it’s eggs are laid in bulbs of various species such as garden daffodils. I found a mating pair on a Bulbous Buttercup, perhaps the plant that the eggs were about to be laid in? The male seemed to be an Early Bumblebee mimic:


However, I’m not sure which species the female was impersonating:


It seemed to be all black except for the last 4 or 5 abdominal segments, which were off-white.

So, I’m currently on 184 species and hope to identify a few more for my bioblitz list.


Canary-shouldered, Purple and Early, a Thorny Moth Trap!

When I checked the moth trap on the morning of August the 2nd, there weren’t as many moths as there usually is. However, there were many species I’ve never seen before, including three species of Thorns. Thorns can be identified by the way they hold their wings – not flat like most moths but angled upwards.

The first species of Thorn I found by the trap was the Purple Thorn, which was resting on the sheet. It’s a pretty large moth, the individual I caught had a wingspan of 34mm. However that’s not the species’ maximum wingspan. The Purple Thorn has two broods (generations) each year, the first flying in April and May and the second flying in July and August. The first brood has a larger wingspan, whereas the second has a smaller wingspan, and the moth we caught was from the second brood. The species is fairly common in the south, and prefers habitats like woodland and heathland. However, it gets scarcer as you move northwards. It is patchily distributed in Scotland, with the main stronghold being around the Moray Firth. It’s common in Wales, but practically absent from Ireland.

Purple Thorn

Purple Thorn, above view

Purple Thorn

Purple Thorn, side view

The second species found, the Canary-shouldered Thorn, was perched on the metal bit which holds up the bulb. It’s the prettiest species we caught, with a bright canary-yellow thorax and yellowy-orange wings. It is also the largest species, even larger than the Purple Thorn, and it also only has one generation. It’s widespread throughout the UK, from Cornwall to Orkney, although like the Purple Thorn, it’s scarcer in Scotland. However, this might be because there are fewer recorders up in the highlands, and there are many concentrated around the South-East (like me). The Canary-shouldered Thorn can also be found in Northern Ireland and even the Isle of Man.

Canary-shouldered Thorn

Canary-shouldered Thorn

The last Thorn species is called the Early Thorn. It’s by far the smallest species and, like the Purple Thorn, has two broods each year. We caught an individual from the second brood which flies from August-September. The first flies from April-May. Even though it might be the smallest, it’s the most widely distributed, being found on Scilly as well as England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland (including Orkney) and the Isle of Man. It’s identifiable by the way it holds its wings, flat above the body like a butterfly. A melanic (dark) form of this species is fairly common in Northern England, but rare down here in the South.

Early Thorn

Early Thorn

The reason we put the moth trap out was because I had an event planned for the following morning. I thought that as I lived in a small, quiet village it would be nice to teach the people who live in my village a little bit about the moths found in their area. I invited all the people I knew from the village and was pleasantly surprised that quite a few people decided to come! I even got a few to sign up to my monthly natural history newsletter, which I will be writing for the residents.

Teifi Marshes, home to the Welsh Wildlife Centre

The week of 13th to the 17th of July, I went to Teifi Marshes, the home of the Welsh Wildlife Centre. It’s owned by the fourth largest Wildlife Trust in the UK, the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales. Nestled on the banks of the River Teifi between the town of Cardigan and the village of Cilgerran, Teifi Marshes is known for its Otters. We stayed in a tiny but cosy cottage near the visitor’s centre, with access to the reserve well after all the other guests had left. That meant we stood an even better chance of spotting Otters as they’re a nocturnal mammal, but we didn’t have much luck.

We arrived at our cottage at 5 in the afternoon and began the process of unpacking. But we didn’t get very far before I spotted two Scarlet Tiger moths sitting right in the open in a flower bed! They are classed as a ‘local’ species in my moth book, which means they are only found in less than 300 sites across the whole of the UK! They are called Scarlet Tiger because of the beautiful red hindwings, visible in the second photo. Scarlet Tiger is also a new species for my pan-species list, which I am hoping to expand this holiday.

Scarlet Tiger

Scarlet Tiger

Scarlet Tiger, showing hind wings.

Scarlet Tiger, showing hind wings.

A pan-species list is a list of species which covers all groups (fungi, plants, invertebrates, mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and amphibians) found in a certain place. My list is of all species found in Britain and I only started putting together my list this spring. It had 781 species at the beginning of this trip but we’ll see how it expands.

After everything was unpacked, I decided to explore the area close to the cottage. The visitor centre closes at 5pm, so I already almost had the whole place to myself! Right next to the cottage is a play area for small children. I found that it was full of wildlife too! Two small Toads were found but were hard to get a good look at as they hopped into a tussock of long grass as soon as I spotted them. I also found a lot of wildlife on the umbellifer-like plants around the play area, mostly Meadowsweet and Hogweed. A large larva had made itself a tunnel of silk from which it fed on the flowers of a Meadowsweet and when I disturbed it it quickly retreated into its tunnel. Lots of Hoverflies were enjoying the sweet nectar of the umbellifers, and there were especially large numbers of Marmalade Hoverfly darting about. Also, annoyingly, Horseflies, or Cleg Flies, were aplenty. I managed to fight them off for most of the duration of my walk, but their persistence paid off when one managed to bite my hand when I was looking at a Brown-lipped Snail!

The following morning it was still drizzly as it had been for the whole journey. I did manage an early morning walk to the river viewpoint though, with the hope of finding Otters. Unsuccessfully.

Both male and female Blackcaps were present, the male singing its socks off in a tree a metre away from me. Males and females are similar apart from one striking feature: the colour of their cap. The female’s and juvenile’s cap isn’t black at all, but in fact brown. The male’s cap is a glossy black though! During my adventures with bird ringing in southern England, I was fooled by a juvenile Blackcap. We had caught a brown-capped Blackcap in the net during a ringing demonstration, and my trainer asked me whether it was male or female. I confidently said “female!”, but had forgotten about juveniles. My trainer didn’t hesitate to point out a few minuscule black feathers in the cap, therefore making it a male!

Moving on from the Blackcaps, I was surprised to see a group of 5 Curlew fly over the river. I had first mistaken the silhouettes of the birds for those of gulls, which are abundant over the river. But their long, curved bills were the stand out feature when I looked through my binoculars! But then, out of the corner of my eye, a spotted a shape. It was swimming downstream, low in the water and diving regularly. Otter? Unfortunately, no. It was in fact a Cormorant, but it fooled me! It was the only Cormorant we saw on the trip which is surprising, I was thinking we’d see a lot more due to the abundance of large water bodies.

After breakfast, we embarked on another walk, longer this time. We went on the Wetland Trail, one of the most popular trails for wildlife spotting. It was marked as 2.8km on the map, but it was tiring after visiting all the hides. Throughout the walk we were spurred on by the soundtrack of Sedge Warbler song – the reedbeds punctuated by small shrubs are perfect for them! However the drizzle which was still coming down beckoned the snails onto the path. We had to watch our step the entire way as Brown-lipped, Garden and other snails saw this as an opportunity to cross to the other side. Sadly we saw nearly as many crushed shells as intact ones, other people didn’t seem to be paying attention. From then on I moved every snail I could to safety!

Most of the snails were crossing over the tarmacked path where most of the hides were. From the tarmacked path we spotted an Oystercatcher piping as it flew over the reedbeds and five more Curlew from a hide.

I must say that Eurasian Oystercatchers are currently my favourite waders. They often nest near human habitation, they have been known to nest in flower pots on patios and are sometimes approachable. They are an unmistakable wader with the mix of black and white and a bright red bill. They are found all over the country, inland and coastal, so they are seen more often than strictly coastal birds like Sanderlings. Also 12 species of Oystercatcher (genus Haematopus) are spread over the whole world, so it’s not only Europe which can enjoy them!

We had lunch at the Glasshouse Cafe in the visitor centre, from which you could see the nearby village of Cilgerran, which we walked to afterwards. The village was certainly different to the rural setting around our cottage but it was a chance to find some suburban wildlife: House Sparrows which were absent in the reserve. Also the loose stone walls harboured a lot of plants, including Maidenhair Spleenwort, Wall-rue and some hardy Herb Roberts.

The following morning got off to a good start. My dad found a moth in the sink when he got up, put it in one of my pots and showed me when I had breakfast. It was a Dark Arches moth which I have caught in the moth trap before at home. It may just be a coincidence but I think it is often found indoors more than other species. I think this because I have found another one at home, but not in the trap. It was in fact on one of our towels! Maybe they like the warmth of human habitation?

Today’s walk was to Poppit Sands, the closest patch of coastline to the reserve. It was near enough to low tide, and there were lots of shells on the beach. Many of them unidentified, I have little experience with shore life as we live far from the coast. We did see a few Compass Jellies though, which were spectacular:

Compass Jellyfish washed up on the beach

Compass Jellyfish washed up on the beach

There were lots of birds down by the beach. When we were just about to walk onto the beach I spotted a Red Kite circle over ‘the last pub before Ireland’ before heading west (in the direction of Ireland). The Red Kite was being mobbed by Corvids, namely Jackdaws and Carrion Crows, of which there were a lot. On the way back to the reserve I saw a Buzzard being mobbed by around a hundred Jackdaws! None, apart from one or two, were very persistent and gave up after a few minutes. Also from that pub we had a great view of a feeding Whimbrel, with a huge flock of Canada Geese. I was hoping to spot some dune fungi by the beach, but unfortunately none were to be seen.

I got up at 4:45 am the next morning because I had set the moth trap and was anxious to see what we’d caught.

  • 2 Brussels Laces. These were the only scarce moth we caught in the trap, and a new species for me. They’re quite a drab moth, similar to the Willow Beauty, but much smaller.
  • 2 Scalloped Oaks. I’ve caught their similar cousin, Scalloped Hazel, in the trap at home. Scalloped Hazels are browner and fly earlier in the year. The Scalloped Oaks look ‘fresher’:
Scalloped Oak

Scalloped Oak

  • 1 Elephant Hawk-moth. I was really pleased when I caught an Elephant Hawk-moth in the trap, as they seem to avoid me. It’s the first ever one I’ve caught in my trap, whereas other people have caught 22 in one night!
  • 2 Clouded Borders. I was really thinking we would catch more as I catch numbers in excess of 10 at home. They’re related to the magpies, Clouded Magpie and Magpie.
  • 1 Magpie. The Magpie we caught in the trap was the first I’ve ever seen and it was also the second largest moth in the trap, after the Elephant Hawk-moth. They’re larger than Clouded Borders and covered in spots instead of black patches.
  • 7 Uncertains. These are the common LBJs (Little Brown Jobs) of the moth world, but they have a great name!
  • 2 Riband Waves. There are two forms of the Riband Wave: the banded and non-banded. I find that they are both abundant but some nights I catch more of one than the other. Both Riband Waves we caught were non-banded.
  • 2 Buff-Tips. I am always amazed by their camouflage. When I discovered one on the bug house next to the moth trap in the morning I actually thought it was a twig!
  • 1 Buff Ermine. These are common moths and I never fail to catch them when I put the trap out at the right time of year.
  • 1 Buff Arches. This concluded the buff moths of the night, but it’s the prettiest of the three.
Buff Arches

Buff Arches

  • 1 Common Wainscot. This is quite a drab, pale moth which is average sized. It flies earlier in the year than other wainscots.
  • 1 Snout. Snouts are a large, odd moth. They actually look like the have a snout which gives them a comical appearance.
  • 1 Drinker. After catching one in the trap in Wales, the Drinker became my favourite moth. It also has a snout like the Snout, but when I saw it wiggle its nose it looked like it had just sneezed!
  • 2 Shaded Broad-bars. These confused me for a while as I have never caught them before. Their colour can be quite variable, ranging from yellow to brown.
  • 1 Spectacle. These moths are distinctive as they have marks at the front of their head resembling white-rimmed spectacles!
  • 1 Southern Wainscot. It was great to catch one of these as they are a localised species and a reedbed specialist, so this reserve is a great place for them!
  • 3 Lackeys. Two males and a female caught in a trap. The females are larger than the males and usually paler, but the colour is variable.

So not as many as I thought I would catch. But there were still a few new species for my list: Southern Wainscot, Shaded Broad-bar, Magpie, Lackey, and Brussels Lace.

For today’s walk we went to Cardigan Castle. Good for history but not so good for wildlife! The walk there was quite good though, as we followed the river most of the way. One of the highlights was when I spotted a lone Sand Martin fly upstream, had to pick out from the 100+ Swallows and House Martins also hawking above the river. It’s my first one this year! I also managed to find a Small Tortoiseshell flitting between buildings,  which I expect is one of the few I’m going to see this year as sadly they don’t seem to be doing well.

Unfortunately that was the end of our incredible holiday. Sadly no Otters, but that doesn’t matter as I was amazed by the amount of wildlife we saw in less than a week!

At the beginning of this post, I said that I was hoping to expand my pan-species list this week. I was very successful! I added around 50 new species, including 18 plants!

Buff-Tip, Buff Arches and Buff Ermine, a Buff-coloured Moth Trap!

Despite it raining last night, we still found some great moths in the moth trap including my first ever nationally scarce moth!

The first moth is the Buff Arches. It has a flint-like quality, with intricate detail etched in white. This leads the list of the most beautiful moths. Do you agree it should be at the top?

Buff Arches

Buff Arches

Second on the list of most beautiful moths is the Buff-Tip. It has unbelievable camouflage, it looks just like a twig. When I put it on a tree it was indistinguishable from a birch twig! I am incredibly lucky to have caught it, even thought it is common.



Next up is the Blotched Emerald, which is not only pretty but is also a localised moth. It is very well named, with cream and fawn blotches on the corners of the wings on an emerald green background.

Blotched Emerald

Blotched Emerald

Our last ‘buff’ moth is the Buff Ermine, of which we caught two. They aren’t always buff-coloured, but can sometimes be white and even black, but that is extremely rare in the wild.

Buff Ermine with 3 Peppered Moths

Buff Ermine with 3 Peppered Moths

To finish off this blog post we’ll have the nationally scarce moth I’ve already mentioned, a Great Oak Beauty. I thought I’d caught this moth two weeks ago, but it actually turned out that it was the much smaller and more common Willow Beauty. This time we were able to compare the size to a Willow Beauty and it was so much larger. Also the pale apical spot under the forewing was visible as well as the antennae, which were feathered on only two-thirds of the length instead of completely.

Great Oak Beauty

Great Oak Beauty