Pan-species Listing: Top 15 New Species of 2017

2017 has been another fantastic year for me with regards to pan-species listing. I am pleased that I am continuing to add species even throughout the quieter months and although I am sure to slow down sooner or later as the number of species I can add is not infinite, I am still yet to break my steady stride. I have managed to delve into groups I haven’t tackled before such as lacewings and springtails. In this blog post I will list my favourite species added to my Pan-species List in 2017, out of about 700 added this year. If I have written a separate blog post about that particular species, the species name is hyperlinked to that post.

15. Marsh Frog

Adding new non-bird vertebrates is not easy, and so it was great to see several Marsh Frogs on a mid-June day at the nearby Warnham Local Nature Reserve. Although they’re non-native, they come in many different shades of bright green and so are much more attractive than the Common frogs!

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A couple of Marsh Frogs on the edge of a pool in the summer sunshine

14. Purple Toothwort

Plants are more regular pan-species listing additions for me, and although I’m still getting to grips with their huge diversity I have found that attending some Sussex Botanical Recording Society meetings throughout the year has been really helpful. This plant however was found in March, one of my earliest plant additions of the year, at Wakehurst Place. It’s one of several really fascinating plant species in the UK which lack chlorophyll to photosynthesise and therefore gain their nutrients directly from other nearby plants!

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A patch of the bizarre leaf-less Purple Toothwort, one of many found at Wakehurst Place

13. Waxwing

The winter of 2016/17 was one of the much hoped-for Waxwing ‘invasion’ years, and therefore it would be rude not to see some! The first flock I saw comprised over 30 birds, which is an amazing number for so far south in the UK. It was at a typical setting, an industrial estate! Waxwings often prefer these habitats because of the wealth of berry-producing bushes that grow there. I also saw a couple more later in the year, feeding in a Davidia (Paper Handkerchief) tree at Wakehurst Place, the fruits of which are large and kiwi-like. Very weird food for Waxwings!

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A Waxwing at Wakehurst Place, among the Davidia fruits.

12. Vestal

I have been moth-trapping in my garden for a few years, yet save for many Diamond-back Moths I hadn’t caught any migrants in my trap. Autumn presented a window of favourable air-flow from southern Europe and North Africa, which seemed likely to bring decent numbers of migrant moths to our shores. I put my trap out with anticipation on a couple of occasions that week, and on the second I caught exactly what I had been hoping for: 3 Vestals!

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One of the Vestals on the wall by the moth trap. They’re not the most attractive of moths but I was really pleased to see them!

11. Stemonitopsis typhina

I have very few slime-moulds on my list like this one, partly because they’re so tricky to identify. However this species, which I came across during a Sussex Fungus Group outing, was a great excuse to research their fascinating life cycle.

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10. Wryneck

In September, I was really lucky to be able to venture up to Spurn Bird Observatory in Yorkshire for the annual Migration Festival. Spurn is undoubtedly one of the major sites for rare birds in England and even quite early on in the vagrant season I managed to see brilliant birds such as Long-billed Dowitcher, Barred Warbler, Long-tailed Skua, Short-eared Owl, Caspian Gull, Roseate Tern, Black Tern, Little Stint, Little Gull, and one of my highlights, a Wryneck. This bird showed beautifully well, feeding on the cliff edge near the Sandy Beaches caravan site. It was so great to watch that I visited the bird three times over the weekend to take in the marvellously intricate plumage.

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Wryneck, taking a break from feeding on ants on the cliffside vegetation.

9. Cut-grass

This rather unassuming rare species of wetland grass has a deadly secret! Its blades are exactly that, as sharp as a knife. I didn’t want to test the sharpness on the Sussex Botanical Recording Society outing to Amberley Wildbrooks on which we saw it, however the blades are apparently able to slice through human skin thanks to the minute stiff hairs along the edges!

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Cut-grass: blades of steel

8. Devil’s Fingers

I’m sure that many people who are lucky to come across a Devil’s Fingers fungus by accident will not be certain that this intriguing organism is natural at all. It bears resemblance to an octopus that had been stuck into the ground upside down, with only its red tentacles emerging from the soil. Furthermore, the tentacles seem to have begun to decompose, with a foul-smelling covering of dark brown goo attracting flies that disperse the fungus’ spores.

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The Devil’s Fingers fungus that we came across on a Sussex Botanical Recording Society meeting at Chailey Common.

7. Green-winged Orchid

Orchids are surprisingly one of the groups that I haven’t seen many of. During the course of the year I added a few species, no rarities unless you count the Greater Tongue-orchids of dubious origin at Wakehurst Place. The Green-winged Orchid was my first orchid species of the year, at Danehill Churchyard. It was great to see the orchids with the nice church in the background, yet I think that the lawn where they were growing was scheduled for mowing. I didn’t have a chance to revisit to check if they were left alone or not, however hopefully they did have the opportunity to flower a little longer.

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A dark-purple Green-winged Orchid in front of Danehill Church. There were also light pink varieties present.

6. Beewolf

One of the highlights of my summer holiday was a two-day course led by Steven Falk on solitary bee identification at the fantastic Rye Harbour Sussex Wildlife Trust reserve. Of course, although we identified huge numbers of solitary bees, it wasn’t all about them on the weekend. We also came across a large wasp known as the Bee Wolf, which is the invertebrate equivalent of the wild canine. Females will catch adult Honey Bees and bring them back to their nest hole, where they will place the bees in a chamber. It’s within this chamber that the young Beewolf develops. At Rye Harbour, we were lucky to watch Beewolves excavating their nest holes and bringing Honey Bees into the chambers.

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5. Queen-of-Spain Fritillary

Birds are the group of organisms most likely to be associated with the word ‘vagrant’. However, during the summer a fortunate lepidopterist found no less than three Queen-of-Spain Fritillaries on his transect near Peacehaven, a species that is unable to breed in the UK as they can’t survive the cold winters. They are therefore very rare summer visitors at best. I am very grateful to the farmer Colin Appleton for allowing lots of keen naturalists onto his land to watch these three regal butterflies ‘lekking’ around a bonfire. Although they apparently travel in groups, explaining why three arrived at once, they are very territorial and the bonfire was the central spot for their territorial disputes, like a boxing ring.

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One of the Queen-of-Spain Fritillaries basking in the sun near the bonfire.

4. Moon Carrot

This wonderfully named plant is not very distinctive, looking very similar to more common umbelliferous plants such as hogweed, yet it’s rare nationally. To make up for its likeness to the other members of its family, it has chosen a spectacular site at which to grow. What seems to be the only modern site for this species in Sussex is the cliffs at Seaford, near the Cuckmere. Some individual plants grow right on the cliff-edge, and look marvellous with the Seven Sisters cliffs in the background. They’ve even made the cover of the new Flora of Sussex!

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The Moon Carrot is so-called as it apparently glows in the moonlight!

3. Wood Warbler

I loved listening to a male Wood Warbler sing its heart out at an undisclosed site in Sussex this year, although it was quite a sad experience. This was the first Wood Warbler on territory for 3 years in Sussex, a county where it once used to be a regular breeder. The energy the warbler put into its song was incredible, for weeks it would sing as loud as it could non-stop while hopping tirelessly from tree to tree. Yet due to the species’ rare status in Sussex these days, there was never a female to respond.

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A brief pause from what must be absolutely exhausting for the Wood Warbler

2. Lesser Glow-worm

Of all the species included in this top-15 blog post, this one is my most recent find. In fact it was just before Christmas that I found a beetle larva beneath a log at Hedgecourt NR. I sent it to Max Barclay, the beetle curator at NHM London asking what it could be as I was stuck. I had only managed to find one possibility, Phosphaenus hemipterus or the Lesser Glow-worm, however I doubted it was that as it is the rarest of all the glow-worms found in the UK. As far as I know there is only one known modern-day colony in the whole of the country, at a site in Hampshire. To my surprise Max kindly replied saying that he did think it was indeed a Lesser Glow-worm, and he had even received confirmation from another expert on glow-worms! Now we’re just waiting to hear back from some specialists in the Czech Republic before we can be 100% certain, yet it certainly seems highly likely I’ve found quite a rarity!

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Despite a thorough search of around 20 logs a few days later, I was unable to find another larva.

1. Wart-biter

At number one, the Wart-biter must be one of my favourite finds from this year. It’s a massive, elusive bush-cricket that’s hard to find at only 5 known modern-day sites in the UK. I visited one of those sites, Mount Caburn on the South Downs, with the Amateur Entomologists’ Society in August specifically to look for this species. The easiest way to find them is to listen for the stridulation (singing), however they only stridulate on warm, calm days and there was a heavy band of rain moving in. I decided to use the highly sophisticated technique of walking around and hoping to chance upon one and it worked! A female jumped from my feet as I was walking, to land in a perfect position for all of the attendees of the field meeting to get an excellent view.

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The Wart-biter gets its name from the old Swedish method of getting rid of warts: allowing this cricket to bite them off!

There concludes my top-15 pan-species listing additions of 2017. It was very hard to condense all the brilliant finds into just my 15 favourites, this blog post could easily be 10,000 words long.

 

 

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Flower of the Illyrians

Yesterday, 2nd September, was the final field meeting of the year for the Sussex Botanical Recording Society at Chailey Common. Chailey Common is a good example of where conservation grazing has been put into place, in order to keep dominant vegetation to a level that won’t swamp more precious flora. Sheep, ponies and cattle are rotated around the commons in order to control plants such as birch, gorse and bramble that will degrade the quality of the heathland habitat if they get out of control.

It was great to see how this conservation grazing was working. It allows smaller and more fragile wildflowers to grow as well as others that may have been at risk from habitat loss. We recorded a good number of scarce and interesting plants, including Heath Milkwort, Scented Agrimony and Lesser Skullcap.

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Scented Agrimony, with subtly notched petals distinctive of this species.

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A flower of Heath Milkwort, so-called as farmers thought that allowing their cattle to feed on this plant would increase milk yields.

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The minuscule flower of Lesser Skullcap.

However there was one stand-out highlight, and that was a small patch of Marsh Gentians. Gentians are often a favourite of photographers as they have a photogenic beauty. I am not a photographer, but I did try my best with the following shots.

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The Marsh Gentian is quite a locally distributed plant, growing on wet heathlands rather than marshes. It does benefit from grazing, which is perhaps why some of its main strongholds are places like the New Forest and Ashdown Forest.

It is one of a number of Gentian species in the UK, in the genus Gentiana, including Autumn Gentian and Field Gentian. On a global scale it is cosmopolitan, with around 400 species; and some species are known to have been used in herbal medicines for quite a variety of ailments. These range from cancer to malaria to parasitic worms, however studies have been conducted that don’t prove that it has any benefits beyond a placebo effect! Despite this, the genus name Gentiana is in honour of the Illyrian king Gentius, who supposedly discovered the plant’s tonic qualities. What it is definitely known to be good for however, is as a dye, especially the Marsh Gentian.

 

Marsh Gentian is my 500th British plant and although summer is now over and most flowering plants are past their peak, there are still late summer and autumn species in bloom. Some of these I hope to see over the next few weeks!

 

 

 

Royalty visits Peacehaven

Across the country there are loads of lepidopterists who walk transects across pieces of land to record all the butterflies present at these locations. We have them to thank for a wealth of data on the distribution and statuses of the UK’s butterfly fauna but also for a number of interesting sightings. An example of the latter was an incredible sighting of no less than 3 male Queen of Spain Fritillaries lekking around a bonfire on a farm on the edge of Peacehaven, near Piddinghoe!

These exotic butterflies were first seen on the Saturday (26 August) by Dave Harris on his transect. It’s private land, however I am incredibly grateful to the farmer Colin Appleton for allowing access, as I was able to visit the site yesterday (29th).

Upon arrival at the location we could immediately tell that this was the place! There were quite a few naturalists spread out across the narrow meadow, searching for the fritillaries. It was about 2.15pm and they had not been seen since 12.45 – which was worrying – however there were still many other nice butterflies to look at while we searched.

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Clouded Yellow – also a migrant butterfly however significantly more common!

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Small Copper

Eventually, 30 minutes after arrival (not too bad considering we could have been waiting for a lot longer!), the keen eyes of Amy Robjohns spotted one fly in and land on the ground. It proceeded to sun itself for the next minute or so before moving to a separate patch of dry earth for a little while longer. Just the one – and it appeared to be much more elusive than on previous days. I would be surprised if any are seen again after today’s forecast bad weather.

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The fritillary sunning itself

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The only photo I got that shows the large white spots on the underside of the wings, characteristic of this species.

It may seem odd that 3 were seen at this same site together, for such a rare migrant. However, they are known to travel in groups, like some birds. However, once they had arrived at the farm, they turned hostile against each other, and used the aforementioned bonfire as a lekking site. Here they would fight against each other, and even drive away innocent butterflies of other species such as the Clouded Yellows and the Common Blues. A lek is used to attract the attention of females and for the females to choose a mate. No females have been seen (yet), however they are more elusive, so perhaps we could be seeing another generation of these exotic butterflies sometime soon.

The Wild Wolves of Sussex

Last weekend, 1-2 July, I was fortunate enough to be attending a two-day bee workshop led by pollinator expert Steven Falk at the Rye Harbour Nature Reserve near Rye in East Sussex. Throughout the weekend we were blessed by an incredible diversity of solitary and social bee species alike, with around 50 species of the Apoidea being found during the weekend.

However, one species that caught my eye wasn’t in fact a bee. Covering the sandy paths at some points were a multitude of wolves, excavating burrows and looking for their next meal. They prowled along the tracks and up the sandy slopes, concentrating their efforts on the path-side bramble bushes. This is where their prey is most often found feeding, unaware of the wolves sneaking up behind them until they latch on with a relentless bear-hug.

Of course, the wolves I’m talking about aren’t the canids that roam remote areas of Eurasia and North America. Just as fierce, however slightly smaller, are Bee Wolves, Philanthus triangulum. Bee Wolves are the largest solitary wasp in Britain and they need to be in order to tackle their favoured prey: honey bees.

Bee Wolves used to be not only the largest but also the rarest solitary wasp in Britain. However, since a couple of decades ago, their population has been on the increase and they’ve spread to a number of new sites. Their numbers are not as large now as they were a few years ago, however there are still more about than there were 25 years ago. It’s great that these fascinating insects are more widespread now as they’re incredible to watch.

They weren’t too scared of humans at all, in fact we were able to watch with such proximity that on a couple of occasions one actually landed on Chris Glanfield’s phone while he was trying to take a photo!

Being solitary wasps, they each dig their own long burrow. These burrows contain many small chambers, as many as 30, each containing several bees. In each chamber an egg is laid, and when it hatches the larva feeds upon the bees inside the chamber before emerging as an adult Bee Wolf. The bees are not dead but paralyzed as it helps them to keep fresh and juicy for the developing larva.

We were lucky to be able to watch several wasps excavating and entering their burrows as well as carrying their prey around. This was the first time I had ever seen a bee wolf and I’m hoping I get another opportunity to watch them before too long!

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An adult Bee Wolf on the path

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a Bee Wolf outside a burrow it has only just started to excavate

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A Bee Wolf proudly outside an unfinished burrow I watched her excavate in only about 10 minutes!

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Adult Bee Wolf

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Bee Wolf

 

Amphibian lifer!

As many of you will know, I’ve been working hard on my pan-species list recently. It’s a list of all the species I’ve seen in the UK and I’ve just broken the 2200 species mark. With an ambition to get to 3000 by mid-August 2018, 13.5 months away, I need to use every opportunity I can get to boost my total! Mostly these days my lifers are invertebrates with some plants, mainly beetles and bugs. Very rarely do I get a vertebrate lifer and I certainly wasn’t expecting to get an amphibian lifer any time soon! However, last weekend I visited Warnham LNR, a fantastic little wildlife site right on the edge of the large town of Crawley.

I have visited this beautiful local reserve only once before, yet then I had no idea about the population of a rare British vertebrate that inhabits the small ponds and the main lake of the reserve. Of course the reserve always holds plenty of wildlife and therefore my first visit was excellent, yet my recent visit was made all the more special by this exciting creature.

With a distinctive call that has earned this species its alternative name of laughing frog, the Marsh Frog Pelophylax ridibundus has been a main attraction at the reserve this spring/early summer although I only found out about it not long ago. With my amphibian & reptile total relatively low on my pan-species list, a new addition in either group was greatly needed and wanted and therefore I was eager to visit and hopefully catch a glimpse of this generally shy species if I was lucky.

My expectations were that I would possibly hear the plop of a frog jumping into the water unseen, or catch a swift movement of a frog fleeing out of the corner of my eye. However, these expectations were soon proven very wrong. It is a non-native species only introduced into the UK in 1935 in Walland Marsh, Kent and has since spread to areas in East Sussex and London. The population at Warnham LNR must be one of the only places where this species is found in West Sussex. The purpose of its introduction was to occupy an ecological niche as it is more aquatic in nature than the native Common Frog and more frequently breeds in ditches and dykes. Many of the places Marsh Frogs inhabit aren’t busy, such as the East Sussex levels, which I suppose has lead to its tendency to leap into the water at the slightest human disturbance. But the Warnham Marsh Frogs behaved in a way completely opposite and, probably due to the large numbers of visitors, were not too afraid of humans at all! Throughout the visit I must have seen at least 10 of varying colours, patterns and sizes. Not a bad looking species whatsoever!

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BTO Birdcamp 2017 – Part 2

It was a 4.30 wake-up for me on Saturday although I was awake well before that, awoken by the sound of a Cuckoo persistently singing outside the tent! Not a bad problem to have, despite the loss of sleep…

The attendees were split into three groups the previous evening and I was in group one, the only group that had to wake up so early. However I didn’t mind all that much as our first activity was bird ringing down at the BTO Nunnery Lakes reserve and an early start usually means more birds!

The Nunnery Lakes reserve is a network of lakes created by the gravel workings of the past. As well as lakes, there is also a myriad of other habitats including sandy heathland and wet woodland. An excellent 60 different bird species breed on the reserve, not including all those that pass through or spend the winter on the site. One of the key species on the reserve is Cetti’s Warbler, a localised resident species found in only the southernmost locations in England and Wales as well as across Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex.

We were able to catch a couple of these birds during our ringing session. They may be drably coloured but they are full of character. I believe that breeding wasn’t able to be confirmed at Nunnery Lakes in previous years, however one of the birds we caught clearly had a brood patch. Brood patches are bare patches of skin that develop in the breeding season. They only occur in birds which are incubating eggs as the added proximity of the blood vessels to the surface of the egg allow heat to be passed on to the egg more efficiently. It was great to be able to confirm breeding of this uncommon species.

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A Cetti’s Warbler that we caught at Nunnery Lakes

Cetti’s wasn’t the only warbler species we caught during the session. We also managed to ring Sedge, Reed and Garden Warblers. We ringed a few Reed Warblers and there were clearly others singing around us, along with more Sedge and Garden Warblers. Clearly the reserve supports good breeding populations of each species. They all have slightly different habitat requirements and it is evident that Nunnery Lakes provides the perfect breeding location for them all.

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Reed Warbler

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Sedge Warbler

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Garden Warbler

Although there were plenty of birds being caught, ringed and released, there was still a number of avian attractions to steal the attention. Cuckoos were calling from every direction, and there must have been at least 3 males heard calling through the whole morning. The sound of the male Cuckoo is well-known however the female’s is less so yet nonetheless distinctive. We were lucky to hear the call of the female which is described as a ‘bubbling’ sound, quite bizarre! Shortly after first hearing this unusual sound the female herself came into view, flying quickly across the pit nearest the ringing station.

It didn’t take more than a first glance to realise that this individual female Cuckoo was not an ordinary female Cuckoo. Most female Cuckoos look very similar to the males, with only a small patch of rufous colouration on the breast. However, this Cuckoo had more than a little rufous colouration on the breast, in fact almost its whole body had a rufous tinge! Rufous morphs like this one are quite uncommon to see so I feel privileged that we had caught a glimpse of such an unusual Cuckoo. These photos below were taken by Elliot Montieth (@Elliot_Montieth www.elliotsbirdingdiaries.wordpress.com):

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It was following the ringing that our group moved on to the nest recording part of the morning. We were each given a long, wooden stick that, we were told, was to be used to gently tap vegetation to see if a bird flies off a nest. We all set off gorse bushes here and small trees there however not finding much using that technique. It wasn’t long into the session however that we located a Bramble and Gorse thicket that was a possible nesting site for a Willow Warbler. After a lot of searching and poking about within the spikey vegetation the nest was eventually located, with several young in the nest:

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Willow Warbler chick

As you can see the chick is not very developed with lots of down and adult feathers only just coming through. The white bars on the wings are what are known as the pin feathers, a sort of sheath before the feather veins expand and become the feathers seen in the adult bird. This chick clearly has a lot of growing to do before it fledges!

Lots of time passed until the next nest was found and we resorted to using the tapping sticks again. I was tapping most of the gorse and bramble bushes, as well as the short oak and hawthorn trees dotted around. Most taps were generally unsuccessful however one unassuming Hawthorn tree did give me a bit of a surprise when a female Blackbird flew out from the centre after a light tap! Knowing that this probably meant that there was a nest present, I immediately looked inside the tree for a nest. It wasn’t hard to spot as it was right in the centre of the tree and with the help of Toby Carter’s purpose-bought selfie-stick we were able to see that there were indeed eggs in the nest!

I was quite pleased to find my first Blackbird nest as it is not a species I was expecting to find. This is because as the Blackbird is a resident species, most pairs are already well into their breeding attempt with many having already fledged young. Few would have started their first attempt so that they would be on eggs at this time of year, so I doubt that this brood is the first to be attempted to be raised by the parents this year. I imagine that either this pair started incredibly early and have already fledged young which are now independent and are attempting a second brood, or the nest failed (e.g. it was predated or the nest itself destroyed) and the pair have now started again.

Just after that activity ended it was time for some birding before the next activity (and, to a lesser extent, breakfast). Just standing around seeing what flies by proved to be a useful exercise with my first Hobby of the year accelerating past high above the nearest lake. Arriving in the UK in late April to May they sometimes gather in large groups (up to 50!) at popular prey-rich wetland sites soon after arriving. However this was the only one I was to see that morning. Still, it was not bad to get a year tick.

Following the replenishment of energy, my final activity of the day commenced. This was learning how to do the Common Bird Census (CBC). For the CBC, one needs to note down the locations of individual birds on a map, and visit the site several times each year. By doing this one can begin to build up an idea of each bird’s territories. Whilst learning about the Common Bird Census we took a circuit of some of the lakes, which were rich in invertebrate as well as bird life.

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The above beetle is a species of longhorn, so named due to their long antennae. There are a number of species in the UK and they are a favourite among many entomologists due to their size (they can get larger than this) and how easy they often are to identify. Annoyingly, this is one of a few similar species, however I believe that it is Stenurella melanura. Longhorn beetles can often be found on flowers like this one or on the dead wood where they have spent most of their life as a grub. Occasionally, as they are so large compared to many other beetles, I spot them in flight and follow them until they land. One species that is easy to spot and identify is Rutpela maculata or the Yellow and Black Longhorn Beetle. If you do spot any longhorn beetles, the Longhorn Recording Scheme would love your records via iRecord.

After a much-needed rest back at the Nunnery and a well-earned lunch, we set off to Lakenheath Fen just inside Suffolk. I was looking forward to visiting this reserve as I’ve never visited it before and it’s home to a number of species that are tricky to see, such as Bittern and Marsh Harrier. Upon arrival at the reserve, we were split into two groups as this reserve trip was not simply a walk to see what we can see but a bird race: a competition between teams to see as many species as possible.

My team set off in a different direction to the other, and our first stop was a viewpoint overlooking a wetland. With Oystercatchers, a Redshank and Common Terns flying down the river it was clear that Lakenheath was a reserve full of birds even with an incredibly strong wind blowing. After seeing all that was in view at that viewpoint we continued along the path beside the river. We saw a Marsh Harrier and another Hobby, both birds of prey characteristic of wetlands.

It wasn’t much farther along when the highlight of the visit to Lakenheath appeared. On huge, pounding wingbeats a Bittern made its way across the reedbed, presumably with food for its young. At this time of year most breeding Bitterns will have young in their nest, and this makes them easier to see as they make feeding flights to and from the nest in order to feed the growing chicks.

The final stop before heading back in the direction of the visitor centre was where a Marsh Warbler had been seen for the past week. With it being incredibly windy I knew that we were never going to hear it let alone see it, but it was nice to stop for a short while and wait. There was a Marsh Harrier quartering the nearest reeds and a Cetti’s Warbler flew around us. Despite not seeing the Marsh Warbler I felt satisfied by our visit to Lakenheath as we had managed to see a number of key reedbed specialists. I’m hoping I can visit the reserve again sometime, because as it’s so large there is lots more to explore!

One of the highlights of the day was this stunning Stone Curlew giving exceptional views in a field. I do not want to disclose the location of this unusually unwary individual as it is on a breeding site, and as Stone Curlews are in decline I do not want it to gather unwanted attention from people with unfavourable intentions. All that aside it was superb to get such a rare opportunity to watch this species at a range that wasn’t hundreds of metres!

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Writing part two made me realise that I have a lot more to write than can fit into 3 parts so this series of blog posts will now be extended to four parts. In the next part, look forward to hearing about an adventure with Nightjars, a successful moth trap and a search for Dartford Warblers!

There’s a fungus on the Town Hall Clock!

If you’ve read my latest post you would know that I am a regular participant of #wildflowerhour. During last week’s Wildflower Hour there were predictably more photos due to the increase in flowering plants as spring progresses. Among these flowering plants was the easy-to-overlook Moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina), which I had never recorded before.

So last week I set out with a picture of Moschatel in my mind so that if I did come across the species I would recognise it. Yesterday I visited Pulborough Brooks RSPB reserve in West Sussex and I did both of those things: I came across a couple of large patches and I recognised it!

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The flower head. You can see that it is cube-shaped, which is what lead to the alternative vernacular name of ‘Town Hall Clock’.

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The whole plant

As you can see from the above photographs, Moschatel is not a hard plant to miss. Its flower heads are only slightly lighter than the leaves and therefore not easy to spot when they are lined up against the foliage of a woodland floor. To be honest, I was quite pleased with myself for managing to spot this indistinctive plant!

However once I had a closer look, there was more to see. One particular patch was very heavily infected with what appeared to be the fungus Puccinia albescens, which covered the leaves, stem and flowers of several plants. This species is a rust fungus, which is a type of fungus that usually parasitises wildflowers and other small plants. There is an incredible diversity of host plants within the 7000 species of rust fungi as most plants are only infected by a single species.

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The close-up photograph above shows the pustules of the rust fungus, which is just one part of the complex life-cycle of rust fungi. These pustules erupt at this time of year and produce uredospores which are carried on the wind to new plants of the same species to infect.

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Telia

Also present alongside these pustules are what I believe to be the telia of the same species. These telia – the dark, round spots – are produced in the autumn in most species and would have overwintered. The telia produce teliospores, which are another method the fungus uses to spread as they disperse to find more plants of the same species to infect, just as the uredospores do.

The life-cycle of rust fungi is very complex and here I have explained it only briefly – different species of rust fungi can have different life-cycles and some infect two completely unrelated species during their life-cycle. These multi-host fungi are known as heteroecious fungi and one host plant is infected by the uredospores and the other is infected by teliospores. As Puccinia albescens is not heteroecious (and is autoecious), its life-cycle can be completed on just a single host species – Moschatel – and the single host species is infected by both the uredospores and the teliospores. Some good websites to visit for more information on the life-cycle of rust fungi are:

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-and-the-spore-stage-of-rust-fungi-fungi/64083

http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/mycologywebpages/NaturalHistoryOfFungi/Pucciniales.html – this one includes a lot of information, however it also contains a lot of scientific jargon and complicated vocabulary.