Christ’s blood covers the Lords-and-Ladies

Being only mid-April it is quite early for a number of wildflower species to be blooming, in particular Orchids. Therefore I was very pleased when I spotted quite a number of individual orchid plants, or ‘spikes’, on Good Friday.

The colour of the flowers of these orchids were purple, and they were flowering quite early in the orchid season. That meant that they were Early Purple Orchids! I was pleased that I managed to see these orchids as although they are not a particularly rare or localised species, they are a species I have never seen before.

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Early Purple Orchid (Orchis mascula) whole spike

 

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Early Purple Orchid (Orchis mascula) flower detail

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Early Purple Orchid (Orchis mascula) whole plant

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Early Purple Orchid (Orchis mascula) leaf detail

As you can see from the last photo above, the leaves of this species are covered in dark black markings. Early Purple Orchids share this characteristic with several other orchid species such as the Common Spotted Orchid and the Heath Spotted Orchid. And, as there so often is, there is folklore that surrounds the spots that are present on the Early Purple Orchid. It has been believed that this flower grew below the Cross on which Christ was crucified, and the leaf spots are the drops of Christ’s blood.

And not only orchids have these dark spots on their leaves. We came across these leaves on the same walk:

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These are the leaves of Lords-and-Ladies, Arum maculatum. When the scientific name is translated into English it becomes ‘Spotted Lily’, after the spots on the leaves. Along with Lords-and-Ladies there is a huge range of other vernacular names including Cuckoo Pint, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Cows-and-bulls and Naked Boys. The names that are gender-related such as Lords-and-Ladies and Cows-and-bulls refer to how the flowers of this species apparently look like the process of sexual reproduction:

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The flower is very clever in attracting insects for pollination. The spadix, the dark inflorescence rising vertically from the flower, has an odour resembling that of dung which is particularly attractive to a number of fly species. The flower can also produce a temperature significantly warmer, up to 15 degrees or so, than the surrounding air, which also helps to bring in pollinators. Below the spadix there is a ring of robust hairs, which temporarily keep the flies inside. The flies are able to escape but usually only when they have come into contact with the male flowers inside the spathe (the green hood surrounding the spadix) and have therefore been covered in pollen. Once the fly has escaped then it will fly to another Lords-and-ladies flower, again attracted by the faecal scent. Some of the pollen on the fly will find itself inside the female flowers – which are situated below the male flowers – allowing fertilisation to take place.

Both Early Purple Orchids and Lords-and-ladies are common plants in the UK at this time of year, definitely species to look out for. Early Purple Orchids are easy to spot due to their tall and bright flowers, particularly in their favoured habitat of woodland and woodland edge. Lords-and-ladies are less easy to spot due to the green colour of their leaves, however keep an eye out for them and you should be able to find some of the distinctive flowers.

 

 

Photo-Stacking at the Angela Marmont Centre

On Wednesday I was very lucky to be able to visit the Angela Marmont Centre at the Natural History Museum in London. The Angela Marmont Centre for UK Biodiversity is an amazing place for naturalists in the United Kingdom that is available for anyone to use. With such a range of resources such as the photo-stacking equipment; a huge library; and the whole of the British collections, it really is invaluable.

I have used the photo-stacking equipment here once before and I really do think it is a very clever piece of kit. It takes lots of photos (I took around 65 for each specimen) all at different focal points and then merges them together using software called Helicon Focus. With all of the different focal points on the specimen covered, there is no part of the specimen that is out of focus and it is all very sharp. This produces a clear image that can show many different features, excellent for identification or illustration of species.

I think that photo-stacking is incredibly useful for a number of projects. For example, if you were writing an identification guide and space was limited, you could in many cases show all the features of an organism in just a single photograph. Also for illustrating an article or a short piece of writing where there is a limit to the number of photographs, you could include just a single image with all of the key features clear and visible.

Below are a few of the photo-stacked images that I took using the equipment. You can find all of the images of the identified specimens on this page. I still have some photographed specimens that I need to identify, and I will post them on that page once I have put a name to them.

Stenodema calcarata labelled

 This Mirid bug is just 8mm from head to end of the abdomen. Its distiguishing feature is the two short spines on the hind femur. This separates this species and the very similar Stenodema laevigata.

 

 

Poecilus cupreus labelled

This is the largest specimen that I photographed, 13mm. This rather big Carabid beetle was swept from a patch of nettles, much to my surprise!

Agriotes pallidulus labelled

This is a very small Elaterid, or click beetle, only 4mm long. When they are threatened they often roll onto their backs and catapult themselves upwards to escape predators and they make a ‘click’ sound as they do so.

 

There’s a fungus on the Town Hall Clock!

If you’ve read my latest post you would know that I am a regular participant of #wildflowerhour. During last week’s Wildflower Hour there were predictably more photos due to the increase in flowering plants as spring progresses. Among these flowering plants was the easy-to-overlook Moschatel (Adoxa moschatellina), which I had never recorded before.

So last week I set out with a picture of Moschatel in my mind so that if I did come across the species I would recognise it. Yesterday I visited Pulborough Brooks RSPB reserve in West Sussex and I did both of those things: I came across a couple of large patches and I recognised it!

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The flower head. You can see that it is cube-shaped, which is what lead to the alternative vernacular name of ‘Town Hall Clock’.

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The whole plant

As you can see from the above photographs, Moschatel is not a hard plant to miss. Its flower heads are only slightly lighter than the leaves and therefore not easy to spot when they are lined up against the foliage of a woodland floor. To be honest, I was quite pleased with myself for managing to spot this indistinctive plant!

However once I had a closer look, there was more to see. One particular patch was very heavily infected with what appeared to be the fungus Puccinia albescens, which covered the leaves, stem and flowers of several plants. This species is a rust fungus, which is a type of fungus that usually parasitises wildflowers and other small plants. There is an incredible diversity of host plants within the 7000 species of rust fungi as most plants are only infected by a single species.

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The close-up photograph above shows the pustules of the rust fungus, which is just one part of the complex life-cycle of rust fungi. These pustules erupt at this time of year and produce uredospores which are carried on the wind to new plants of the same species to infect.

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Telia

Also present alongside these pustules are what I believe to be the telia of the same species. These telia – the dark, round spots – are produced in the autumn in most species and would have overwintered. The telia produce teliospores, which are another method the fungus uses to spread as they disperse to find more plants of the same species to infect, just as the uredospores do.

The life-cycle of rust fungi is very complex and here I have explained it only briefly – different species of rust fungi can have different life-cycles and some infect two completely unrelated species during their life-cycle. These multi-host fungi are known as heteroecious fungi and one host plant is infected by the uredospores and the other is infected by teliospores. As Puccinia albescens is not heteroecious (and is autoecious), its life-cycle can be completed on just a single host species – Moschatel – and the single host species is infected by both the uredospores and the teliospores. Some good websites to visit for more information on the life-cycle of rust fungi are:

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/fungi/life-cycle-and-the-spore-stage-of-rust-fungi-fungi/64083

http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/mycologywebpages/NaturalHistoryOfFungi/Pucciniales.html – this one includes a lot of information, however it also contains a lot of scientific jargon and complicated vocabulary.

Purple Toothwort

The Botanical Society of Britain & Ireland (BSBI) is a fantastic organisation ‘for everyone who cares about the wild plants of Britain and Ireland’. It gives support to botanists and recorders of all levels of expertise and leads many projects to help better understand the flora of the British Isles. One of the ways in which the BSBI has been helping to bring British and Irish botany to the wider public is through social media and especially using the hashtag #wildflowerhour on Twitter.

Wildflower Hour takes place every Sunday at 8pm and is an opportunity for everyone to share their photos of wildflowers taken over the past week. Many people come together to share their plant sightings and Twitter becomes a hub of botanical activity. Wildflower Hour is not only a good way to share wildflowers with others but also a chance to revise plant identification and see what has been recorded in your local area.

A couple of  Sundays ago, Wildflower Hour took place as normal with many tweets on early spring wildflowers. One of these tweets was by @KateGold24 and included some photographs taken at Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. As I live quite close to Wakehurst I was interested, and even more so when I saw that one of the photos was of several flowers of a Purple Toothwort Lathraea clandestina.

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As I have never seen Purple Toothwort before, I was excited to visit Wakehurst Place on Friday afternoon just after we broke up for the Easter holidays. I was expecting to have to search long and hard for them due to the fact that they are not the largest of plants, however I was very wrong. They were all over the place! As well as in the main part of the gardens they were also in the deepest part of the woods and even on the bank of Westwood Lake.

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As you can see from the above photograph, the plant is currently without leaves and it will remain without leaves. Leaves are necessary for photosynthesis as they contain chlorophyll which is vital for the process. However, this plant contains no chlorophyll and is therefore unable to photosynthesise and produce energy in that way. Then how does it produce energy?

You will, most of the time, find this plant growing below mainly Poplar and Willow trees. This is because it is these trees it most usually parasitises, and it does so using its roots. These grow at a gentle downward angle until one of them finds a root of the tree they are parasitising. Each root has haustoria, suckers, on the end which attach to the root of the tree and from there the toothwort gets its energy.

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The Purple Toothwort is closely related to the Common Toothwort, Lathraea squamaria, which is also a root parasite. The Common Toothwort is more common, however it is a species I have yet to see. I am hoping I’ll be able to find some this year before they stop flowering in May. The generic name ‘Toothwort’ comes from this common species: their flowers look like a row of teeth!

 

Summer migrant at last!

The weather last weekend certainly suggested that spring had sprung and the many signs of the changing seasons about such as flowering Wood-Sorrel and active Bee-Flies supported that fact. However despite the beautiful sunny weather, by yesterday morning I was still yet to see a summer migrant this year!

Early yesterday morning I spent over an hour at the beautifully serene and calm Hedgecourt Lake waiting for a particular species I was hoping to see arrive. Ospreys are apparently seen here every spring and autumn when they travel through on their way to their more northerly breeding grounds. However I have never seen a single one here.

The previous evening (Saturday) not one but two Ospreys were reported nearby at Weir Wood Reservoir just as the sun was setting at 18:30. I was hoping that they would carry on their migration northwards earlier this morning and arrive at Hedgecourt, which is the nearest large waterbody to the reservoir. That is the main reason why I was up nearly at dawn getting ready to wait for one to appear.

Unfortunately I didn’t have any luck with the Ospreys at Hedgecourt although there were some other nice birds about around the lake, with many singing Chiffchaffs, a displaying Sparrowhawk and a male Mandarin which flew in.

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Upon arrival back home I heard news that a couple of nice summer migrants had been seen at Weir Wood Reservoir while I had been at Hedgecourt. These were an Osprey, possibly one of the two there yesterday, and a Little Ringed Plover. Encouraged by this news we decided to head to Weir Wood Reservoir to see if we could see either of these birds ourselves.

Weir Wood Reservoir is quite a large reservoir and the whole reservoir cannot be seen from just one viewpoint. Therefore most people visit both ends of the reservoir, the West end and the Dam end. The West end was where we visited first and where the Ospreys were seen yesterday evening and this morning.

Despite the large number of birders at the car park there were few interesting birds to be seen and certainly no Ospreys. According to one of the birders there, Alastair Gray, they can remain well-hidden during a lot of the day simply perched in the trees beside the reservoir and only become noticeable when they set out to fish most commonly in the early morning and late afternoon. They don’t like to fly a lot unnecessarily as it really upsets the local crows which harass the Ospreys until they land! However there was an immature male Goldeneye amongst a group of Great Crested Grebes which was my first of the year.

After searching for hidden Ospreys unsuccessfully we then moved on to the dam end to look for the Little Ringed Plover. The walk up to the dam wall was alive with the song of many Chiffchaffs and the blossoming Blackthorns were full of life. There were a pair of Pied Wagtails on the grassy bank of the dam and a Grey Heron flew overhead.

After walking along the dam wall for a little while to my relief the Little Ringed Plover came into view. It was small and slender, moreso than its relative the Ringed Plover, and was feeding right on the water’s edge. I was able to get quite close, up to a distance of about 10 feet, and from there I was easily able to observe its distinguishing features. To separate Little Ringed from Ringed Plover, the easiest feature to see is the colour of the bill. Little Ringed Plovers have an entirely dark bill whereas Ringed Plovers have a bill with an orange base and a dark tip. Also,  if you are close enough, you might be able to see the yellow eye ring of a Little Ringed Plover which is a feature absent in Ringed Plovers.

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The Little Ringed Plover

Although Little Ringed Plovers are regular breeders in England and Wales in the modern day, they first bred as recently as 1938. Their expansion across southern Britain is partly due to the creation of man-made habitats perfect for breeding such as water-filled gravel pits. Now over a thousand pairs of these small waders arrive here each spring to leave again in late June/July.

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I am pleased that I have now managed to find my first ‘proper’ summer migrant of 2017. Over the coming weeks, migration is set to pick up as winds become favourable and it becomes warmer. Hopefully I will soon be waking up to the song of Blackcaps and Willow Warblers!

A corner of County Kerry in a Kentish Cave

Saturday saw me attending another excellent field trip run by the South-East group of the British Bryological Society. This time we were headed to a private site just inside Kent called Hungershall Rocks. The sandstone at Hungershall Rocks is part of a large number of these outcrops stretching across the Weald from Tunbridge Wells to Ardingly and all along the ridge there are sites with a wealth of rare bryological flora.

Hungershall Rocks is a private site just outside Tunbridge Wells near High Rocks which we were lucky to get access to. Plenty of excellent bryologists have visited the site in the past and the records stretch back over more than 150 years. It has been interesting to see how the bryological flora of the site has developed over such a long time, with new species being discovered but equally species that were here in the past being lost from the site.

The rocks themselves are mainly under tree cover, however some are more exposed. Some patches are dripping wet due to the clay within the rocks and others bone dry. There are a plethora of nooks, crannies, ledges and some caves too. This wide range of rock features leads to a very diverse set of mosses and liverworts that can be found on these rocks.

It wasn’t only mosses and liverworts that were in abundance either. There were many different vascular plant species inhabiting the rocks, especially ferns. One of the best finds of the day was this beautiful, eye-catching and impressive-looking plant:

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It’s stunning, isn’t it?

It wasn’t too easy to get to. It was growing on the wall of a small cave, where very little sunlight penetrated. There was only really room for one person inside the cave and that person had to be in a crouched, uncomfortable position. So why was this rather underwhelming (to be honest) plant worth such an effort to get to?

It is Trichomanes speciosum, the Killarney Fern. Killarney is a small town in Ireland’s County Kerry, the county where half of Ireland’s known populations of this fern are found. As you can see from the map below, this species has a predominantly Western distribution in the UK and is quite unusual in the East, being recorded in only a handful of sites in the South-East:

Killarney Fern

NBN Gateway map for Trichomanes speciosum

You might be thinking that it doesn’t look like a normal fern usually does and you’d be forgiven for thinking so because this is not the most commonly seen fern life-stage. The life-cycles of ferns are very complex and unusual and this is a seldom noticed part of it.

The green felty stuff that you can see in the image are the rhizoids of the gametophyte (also known as the prothallus), the gametophyte being the life-stage before the recognisable adult sporophytes that we most commonly come across; the rhizoids being filaments attached to the gametophyte which conduct water.

On the undersides of the fronds of adult ferns there are small, usually brown, sporangia which contain spores. These spores are released and when a suitable site is found, they grow into a gametophyte like the one shown in the image. The word gametophyte comes from the word gamete – the male and female reproductive cells (the ova and the sperm cells) that they produce.

The gametophyte features an archegonium and an antheridium. The archegonium is the female reproductive organ, which contains a single ovum. The antheridium is the male reproductive organ, which releases lots of sperm. The sperm swims through a thin film of moisture and into a nearby archegonium where the ovum is waiting to be fertilised.

Once the ovum has been fertilised, it becomes a zygote and later an embryo. The embryonic fern relies on the prothallus (gametophyte) from which it grows for its water and nutrients. Soon the embryonic plant grows into a sporophyte (the large leafy plant we most regularly recognise as a fern) and the prothallus dies.

That is fern reproduction explained as simply as I could (I can only just understand some of it myself) and there is a lot more to it. This link explains fern reproduction in much more detail, however as a warning there is certainly a lot of scientific jargon used: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~joyellen/fernreproduction.html

The following diagram is a representation of the fern life cycle, from the same website:

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So, that felty green stuff on the wall of a cave might not look like much. However clearly there is a lot of interesting information and a very complex life-cycle behind it.

World Wildlife Day – Listen to the Young Voices

Yesterday was World Wildlife Day and the theme this year was ‘Listen to the Young Voices’.

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In December 2013, World Wildlife Day was proclaimed as the third of March, which is the day of signature of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). The United Nations decided that World Wildlife Day would be celebrated this year under the theme ‘Listen to the Young Voices’ due to the fact that a quarter of the world’s population are aged between 10-24 and as the next generation they need to be encouraged to protect wildlife.

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Thanks to the brilliance of technology corresponding with people a long distance away has become easier than ever before. And given the unfortunate low density of young teen naturalists in the British Isles, this has been instrumental in bringing the future naturalists and conservationists together.

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Last year I decided to set up a Twitter account (@My_Wild_Life) and very soon I was talking to many of the incredible young naturalists I had previously only read about in magazines and online. A ‘group chat’ had been set up specifically for young naturalists and this became a hub of support, learning and conversation. I was over the moon to be involved with such a hopeful and inspiring group of young people who shared my interest.

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Young people are the future. And in a world where we humans are advancing quickly in many ways, the future of nature and the environment needs to be put higher up the agenda. And without young people interested in the natural world and keen to protect it, it is unlikely that the environment will prosper.

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Due to the increasing popularity of social media such as Twitter, there has been a huge surge in the ‘Youth Nature Movement’. The work of top naturalists and conservationists has lead to a significant increase in the number of young people getting involved with nature. It has also given aspiring young people looking for a career in wildlife louder voices, which need to be listened to.

Below is a list of excellent nature blogs by under-twenties that are really worth reading:

Dara McAnulty, Young Fermanagh Naturalist: https://youngfermanaghnaturalist.com/
James Miller, Knee Deep in Nature: http://www.kneedeepinnature.co.uk/
Mya Bambrick, My World of Wildlife: http://myathebirder.blogspot.co.uk/
Josie Hewitt, Josie Hewitt Photography: http://josiehewittphotography.co.uk/
Paddy Lewin, Paddy’s Wildlife Blog: https://paddylewinwildlife.wordpress.com/
Elliot Montieth, Elliot’s Birding Diaries: https://elliotsbirdingdiaries.wordpress.com/
Dawood Qureshi, Heart of Wild: https://heartofwild16.wordpress.com/
Thomas, Exploring Wildlife: https://exploringwildlife.blogspot.co.uk/
Charlotte, That Bird Blog: http://thatbirdblog.weebly.com/
Zach, Year of Nature: https://yearofnature.blogspot.co.uk/
Harry Witts, Harry’s Wildlife: https://harryswildlife.wordpress.com/
Michael Sinclair, Michael Sinclair Photography: https://naturephotographer.co/
Luke Nash, Luke’s Birding Blog: https://lukesbirdingblog.wordpress.com/
Louis Driver, Louis’ Wild Northumberland: https://louiswildnorthumberland.blogspot.co.uk
Jack Dawson, Jack Dawson Wildlife: https://jackdawsonwildlife.wordpress.com/
Alex Bayley, A Whiff of Fox: https://awhiffoffox.wordpress.com/
Alex White, Appleton Wildlife Diary: https://appletonwildlifediary.wordpress.com/
Noah Walker, Walker’s Wildlife Photography: http://walkerwildlifephotography.blogspot.co.uk/
Findlay Wilde, Wilde About Birds: http://www.wildeaboutbirds.blogspot.co.uk