verb: to complain; to grumble
Yesterday I returned from a 17-day trip to Namibia and South Africa and after a string of special sightings, grousing is exactly what I wasn’t doing. One particular highlight was sightings of an order of birds I have never been lucky enough to encounter before.
Sandgrouse belong to the bird order Pterocliformes. This came about after they had previously been placed in two other orders. Firstly, they were included in the Galliformes, where the true grouse reside. They were placed here due to their anatomical similarities to the true grouse, although later on there was the realisation that this was not a result of genetic similarity but of convergent evolution (where two or more unrelated taxa evolve similar features, for example echolocation in the case of dolphins and bats). The next order they were included in was the Columbiformes which also contains pigeons and doves. This was because it was thought that they employed peristalsis in the oesophagus to suck up water – a pumping action which can draw liquid into the gullet – which is unusual in birds. Although now it is thought that this is incorrect, which stimulated the choice to place them in their own order.
There are sixteen species of sandgrouse species, found mostly in Asia and Africa. There are also some species in Europe such as Pin-tailed and Black-bellied which are found around the western Mediterranean. One has even made it to the UK: while most sandgrouse species are sedentary or make seasonal altitudinal movements at most, the Pallas’s Sandgrouse, which is usually found in central Asia, can be irruptive. Large irruptions have not been experienced in Europe for decades although they did occur regularly in the late 19th century. One irruption lead to thousands flooding into the UK and even breeding in a few locations.
As an order, they are well known for their drinking habits. Many species travel for miles to visit waterholes daily, where they can drink enough water in just few seconds to last them the 24 hours until the next visit. They are also famous for how they supply water to their young before they are able to fly to waterholes. The adult’s downy breast feathers are able to soak up lots of water, from which the chicks drink.
To avoid competition, different species visit waterholes at different times. This regularity makes waterholes ideal places to see many sandgrouse species with ease. During our stay at the Okaukuejo Camp in Etosha National Park, Namibia, we noticed that there was a poster by the reception which mentioned that Double-banded Sandgrouse visit the waterhole 40 minutes before sunrise and Namaqua Sandgrouse visit between 9am and 10am. We were lucky enough to have a chalet right next to the floodlit waterhole which is the main attraction at the camp. I was not going to refuse an opportunity to see my first sandgrouse species, so the next morning at 6.10 am I sat on a bench overlooking the waterhole. It wasn’t long before the first Double-banded arrived on the edge of the waterhole; at first it was only one or two at any time but before long there were at least thirty at once. Considering it was pitch-black everywhere around the floodlit waterhole, I was impressed.
Due to the light my camera was set to a shutterspeed of 1/4, fortunately when they first landed the sandgrouse had a habit of staying stock still for a few seconds to check for danger before proceeding to drink.
A female Double-banded Sandgrouse.
Some sandgrouse smudges and a couple of less-blurry males.
After breakfast we headed out on a game drive on the semi-arid plains of the park. It was the dry season so waterholes were in low supply, so much so that individual ones are marked out on the map. At 9.45 am we arrived at the first waterhole of the day, on the edge of the Etosha Pan. This pan, when it wasn’t a pan, would have been the third largest lake in the world after the Caspian Sea and Lake Superior. It is not entirely known how the lake dried up however tectonic movements changing the course of the river that fed it seems to be the most plausible explanation. Nowadays, its dry, salt-encrusted state causes a few small water-bodies to draw in animals from a very wide radius.
Among the springbok, gemsbok and other mammals that this particular waterhole had attracted, I noticed a good number of what I originally thought were Cape Turtle Doves. Although after a closer inspection I realised that they definitely were not these but Namaqua Sandgrouse, at exactly the right time in the morning!
The light was better for our sighting of the Namaqua Sandgrouse than for the Double-banded Sandgrouse, however the distance was compromised. This image shows a male on the left and a female on the right.
After having never previously laid eyes on these fascinating birds, seeing two species in just one day was certainly more than I expected. Although a few days later, it became evident that the trip was about to become even better for sandgrouse. We were at our final destination of the Namibia leg of our travels, a lodge named Ondekaremba near to the Windhoek Airport. We had dropped our bags off at the lodge before then returning the rental car at the airport (then subsequently hailing a taxi for our return to the lodge and a hotel transfer to the airport the following morning). We were beginning to think this was not a good idea as the access road to the lodge was a four-mile dirt track weaving through the bushveld and a dry riverbed which was unforeseen. However, it certainly became worthwhile when my mum spotted some movement on the side of the road. My dad, seated on the nearest side of the car to the birds, proclaimed that they were sandgrouse which lead to my panicked scramble across the backseats. By the time the car had come to a stop they were so close that I had to lean right out of the window to get a view of them below us. There were two, presumably a male and a female. The female was hard to see in the roadside grass although the male was walking slowly unobscured along the road itself. Compared to the poor light for the Double-bandeds and the distance involved with the Namaquas, I had no excuses with these birds. Luckily, in my opinion I don’t need any! What made this encounter even more memorable was the fact that they were a third species: Burchell’s! I couldn’t help feeling that my luck was well and truly in. Three out of the four species inhabiting Southern Africa in less than a week is not bad going.
The male Burchell’s Sandgrouse.
This species is known for travelling around 100 miles each day to its favourite waterhole.