Starting a Herbarium

For centuries botanists have been collecting specimens of the plants they observe. If done correctly, botanical specimens can last for a very long time. For example, the Angela Marmont Centre at the Natural History Museum has specimens collected by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. Specimens can be very useful in documenting regional variation and how a species has changed over time.

Last weekend I was out with the South-east branch of the British Bryological Society recording mosses and liverworts at Devil’s Dyke, north of Brighton. As is often the case, however, one of the highlights of this field trip was in fact not to do with the subject of our search! Once we had passed through a section of Ash woodland on our walk we came to a lovely crystal-clear chalk pond. Despite few bryophytes around the pond’s edges the pond was full of life, including several water plants. Most common was the Ivy-leaved Duckweed, Lemna trisulca, and there were also a few Potamogeton natans plants as well. However what really caught our eye was a very beautiful looking pondweed with a lovely texture and colour that was unfamiliar to me but not for the other members. They identified the pondweed as Groenlandia densa, otherwise known as the Opposite-leaved Pondweed.

Groenlandia densa is not a very common species and is sadly declining in Britain. This is mostly due to urbanisation, and therefore it is missing from the vast majority of London. It has also declined due to a factor known as eutrophication which is the presence of excessive nutrients in a water body. This is most commonly caused by run-off from the nearby land, and it creates a dense growth of plant life which can potentially displace species that cannot compete. Due to this decline, it was suggested that I collect a piece of the pondweed, in case it becomes a very rare species and little material for herbariums could be found without damaging a population.

It is easy for anyone to start preparing plant specimens; little specialist equipment is needed. This is all that is needed for a beginner to make a good quality specimen:

  • newspaper
  • heavy books
  • a dry environment
  • good quality card
  • PVA glue
  • printed labels

And these are the steps I went through to create my pondweed specimen:

  1. Lay out the specimen on half of a full double page spread of newspaper in a way that should show as many features as possible.
  2. Once the plant is in a good position, fold over the other page of the double page spread.
  3. Add some more sheets of newspaper to the top and bottom of the folded newspaper with the specimen inside.
  4. Put the newspaper on a hard, flat surface.
  5. Place a few heavy books on top of the newspaper.
  6. Leave the specimen until it is sufficiently dry and flat, this could take a few weeks or only a few days, but don’t overdo it and don’t leave it for too short a period.
  7. Once the specimen is ready carefully take it out from the newspaper and lay it out on your piece of card making sure that it shows the necessary features. Remember to leave room for a label!
  8. Using PVA glue or any other glue recommended by botanists, stick the specimen down on the card. PVA glue dries clear so don’t worry too much if you get some on the card where you don’t want it.
  9. Fill in a label. Ideally the label should show as much information about the plant as possible: species; family; collection number; locality (grid reference, name of site, nearest town, county etc.); habitat; collector’s name; date of collection; and also note down features of the plant that may have been lost in the drying process.
  10. Finally, and optionally, you could also attach a small paper envelope to the specimen containing dried fruit/seeds that would have been ruined in the pressing process.

And there you have your specimen! This is what my pondweed looked like before and after collecting, pressing and mounting:

This is not the only specimen I have so far collected. At the beginning of the summer, as part of my interest to record the slightly trickier-to-identify species, I collected a couple of Bramble (Rubus) species. These were the first specimens I collected and I was quite pleased with the result. However, they weren’t good enough. After I had dropped them off at the Angela Marmont Centre at the Natural History Museum, Dr David Allen kindly looked at them for me. Unfortunately they were lacking some necessary features vital in identification, such as a section of the first year growth. Using his advice, I went out recently and collected a specimen of a particularly late-flowering Bramble, and this was the result:

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I will also attach with the specimen a couple of photos of the plant before it was collected:

This shall hopefully even further aid identification and maybe contribute to the understanding of this poorly known group.

Many groups are overlooked, because they are tricky to identify or they are too small or they need specialist equipment to collect. Some examples are dandelions, a nightmare of identification; desmids, microscopic algae; and parasitic wasps, also very difficult to identify. This results in these groups being little-known as few people are willing to try to find and identify them. This leads to under recording of species that are probably common, creating deceptive data. One of my aims is to try and master these very difficult groups and hopefully make a difference.

Worms from the depths…

Last weekend, on the way back from a great stay at Portland Bird Observatory, I met Tony Davis and Josie Hewitt in a small car park in the New Forest. Our aim was to find as many rare plants as possible and we did well, finding really uncommon species such as Yellow Centaury, Pillwort and the delightfully named Duck-potato. Below are a few photos of the plants we managed to record.

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Autumn Lady’s-tresses

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Pillwort, this is actually a fern and reproduces using spores!

Despite seeing over 30 new species for my pan-species list that day my highlight was actually an annelid worm! I don’t often look at annelid worms (which are mostly earthworms) as they are not the most exciting creatures in my opinion and I find them very tricky to identify. However the species I added was far from boring!

To find this species, we stood in a pond.

We didn’t have to do anything else, just stand in the pond and wiggle our feet. It wasn’t long before I spotted a long dark creature swimming towards me like an eel on its side. It twisted through the water and came right up to my boot before swimming off. Then Josie spotted another at my heel. There were several of them, twisting through the water weeds with elegant wavelike movements.

This part of the New Forest is excellent for this species of annelid worm, the Medicinal Leech. This is due to the number of ponies providing the leeches with lots of food! Many leeches are terrestrial, however some, like this species, prefer to inhabit freshwater and are adept at swimming. The Medicinal Leech is often mistaken for the Horse Leech, which the leeches in this pond were at first thought to be. Although they appear very similar in appearance, they have very different prey preferences. Despite the name, Horse Leeches can’t penetrate the tough skin on mammals and therefore cannot feed upon their blood. Instead they choose to eat much smaller prey, such as snails and earthworms, both in the water and out. Medicinal Leeches are able to bite tough skin and their main food sources are cattle and horses. However, they also feed on frogs and sometimes even humans!

Unfortunately, these fascinating invertebrates are one of the few I know to have an IUCN designation worse than Least Concern. Most are Not Evaluated or Data Deficient and the species with enough research to provide details on the fluctuations and size of populations are often not too rare. They are classified as Near Threatened despite the population trend – among other things – being unknown. Their main threats are local collection for medicinal use; loss of habitat; and decline in one of their main prey items, frogs.

Below are a few photos I was able to take of the leeches that swam towards us:

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It’s Popping Hot

Some people find plants boring. However, they are very clever. How can a plant be clever? Through evolution, plants have developed many fascinating ways to survive and thrive.

The key to a plant’s success is largely in the seed dispersal technique. Without a way to disperse seeds, plants would not be able to colonise new suitable habitat and spread. Therefore plants have learnt to be ingenious in their methods of ensuring the future of generations to come.

Yesterday afternoon I was walking through my local farm when I heard a few pops coming from the vegetation beside the path. At first I thought they were the calls of a grasshopper or a cricket, but definitely not a species I had heard before. I stopped and waited to see if I could hear anymore. I did, and this time I thought they sounded like click beetles, but why would so many be clicking at the same time? I was puzzled by this strange sound until, accompanied by a pop, I saw a quick movement out of the corner of my eye. I looked closer to where the movement had come from but I couldn’t see anything that I thought could have made the sound, just a patch of vetch. Then I realised that the sound was coming from the vetch itself!

Vetches are plants related to peas, they have pods like peas although usually much smaller. The pods begin green, the same colour as the leaves, and then as they mature they turn darker until they are brown. Plants in the pea family often have pods that pop, which is advantageous to the plant as it is a great method of seed dispersal. This method ensures the seed is enough distance away from the parent plant to prevent overcrowding.

Before I witnessed the popping of the seed pods yesterday I had no idea how it actually worked. How did the pods pop? I have done a bit of research and what I found out was fascinating. On hot days like yesterday the seed pods dry out, aided by the dark colour of the mature pods in some species which absorb heat. During the drying process forces build up inside the pod until it reaches a point when the pod explodes. In most pods there are two lines of weakness running along the pod, and it is here where the tensions which are set up in the wall of the pod cause the pod to explode. Similar to when a pulled spring is let back, the two halves of the pod curl back at lightning speed which flicks the seeds out of the pod!

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These two pods are still green and have not dried enough to pop.

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Two seed pods which are ready to pop! They have dried in the hot weather and turned brown.

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Two freshly-popped seed pods, showing the two halves of the pod

 

1 Garden, 24 Hours, 184 species!

…and counting! Last Sunday, the 5th, I took part in the Garden Bioblitz for the first time. The aim of a bioblitz is to record every species you find in an area within a period of time. For the Garden Bioblitz, you record every species you find in your garden during a 24 hour period.

To begin my Garden Bioblitz I looked through the moth trap from the previous night. There was a very wide range of species, including 23 that were new to me. The highlights were:

  • Great Oak Beauty – annual in Domewood, but Nationally Scarce B (NB).
  • Cacao Moth – usually found indoors in stores of products such as nuts, almonds, tobacco and cacao. I’ll be checking my muesli from now on…
  • Scorched Wing – a beautiful moth which is also classed as Local. There were 8 in the trap.
  • Peach Blossom – a great moth with a great name although quite common.
  • Cypress Carpet – quite an uncommon moth, which arrived in Britain through its host plant, cypress. There are lots of Lawson Cypress trees in the garden which probably explains its occurrence here.
  • Diamond-back Moth – for some reason, I rarely see immigrant moths. The Diamond-back Moth is only the third immigrant moth I’ve recorded. I recorded it for the first time during the last weekend of May, but there were 29 in the trap!

I also caught a very interesting beetle that had a very pungent smell. I thought it was a sexton beetle and I was right. However, I wasn’t too sure which species it was. It was all black and luckily there are only two all-black species in the British Isles: Necrodes littoralis (the Shore Sexton Beetle) and Nicrophorus humator (the Black Sexton Beetle). It turned out to be the Shore Sexton Beetle due to the antennal clubs not being brushes as in the Black Sexton Beetle. Thanks to Chris Brooks on iSpot for the identification. Sexton beetles are interesting because they feed on dead animals. If the dead animal is small then they will bury it to keep other scavengers from taking it. They do this by excavating the soil under the body so that the dead animal sinks into the ground. The adults lay eggs nearby and when the larvae hatch they crawl to the dead animal to feed and even be fed by the adult. Even though this beetle was caught in the moth trap there isn’t necessarily a dead animal nearby as they can fly quite long distances in order to find their food.

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After I had finished looking through the moth trap, I walked around the garden listing all the wild plants. Before I added the plants I already had a list of almost 70 and there was still lots to identify! Other non-moth highlights included a Canada Goose flock flying over and the first Grey Heron I have seen fly over the garden in more than a year. After I finished off the plants I had breakfast, meaning that I had a list of 130 before breakfast. Things were going well!

It wasn’t just plants that I added to my list on the walk around the garden. It was quite early but there were still some insects on the wing, including Rose Sawflies, Speckled Wood butterflies, Large White butterflies and various bees. I was even lucky to see the young fox that has been hanging around the garden for the past few weeks. It is not that shy, here is the photo I took when I first spotted it:

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After breakfast I looked under the logs and stumps in my garden. As always, they were brimming with slugs, beetles, woodlice and other creatures. The most common ground beetle was Agonum emarginatum, a species usually associated with damp habitats near freshwater. This makes sense as most of the stumps were near our tiny pond. The list of slug species was quite good too: Budapest Slug, Leopard Slug, Yellow Slug, Dusky Slug, Greenhouse Slug and Ambigolimax nyctelius, the species I found new to Surrey last year. When I first found it I had to send it off to Wales to get the genitalia looked at, but this confirmed the scientist’s suspicions that there were slight morphological differences between Ambigolimax nyctelius and the Greenhouse Slug. In my experience, Ambigolimax nyctelius is more boldly marked than the Greenhouse Slug.

Finally, the highlight of my bioblitz was finding an amazing fly species that I have been looking for in my garden since Tony Davis told me that it was likely to appear here. It’s not rare or scarce, but it is impressive. It is a species of hoverfly that mimics bees. It has many different forms that each mimic different bee species. It’s called the Narcissus Bulb Fly or the Greater Bulb Fly and it’s eggs are laid in bulbs of various species such as garden daffodils. I found a mating pair on a Bulbous Buttercup, perhaps the plant that the eggs were about to be laid in? The male seemed to be an Early Bumblebee mimic:

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However, I’m not sure which species the female was impersonating:

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It seemed to be all black except for the last 4 or 5 abdominal segments, which were off-white.

So, I’m currently on 184 species and hope to identify a few more for my bioblitz list.

 

Underground Birds’ Nests!

This afternoon I was very lucky to be able to fit in a short trip to an undisclosed site in Ashdown Forest to see a very rare plant: the Bird’s-nest Orchid. I have been asked to keep the precise location a secret as there are only two individual plants flowering at the moment and I believe there might be some collectors keen to get their hands on them. Luckily Ashdown Forest is a huge place and these orchids are incredibly easy to miss.

I first learnt about these orchids being present at Ashdown Forest – one of the largest areas of woodland and more importantly open heathland in the South East – on the Sussex Botanical Recording Society website. There is a new ‘Latest Sightings’ feature on the website and I have been lucky enough to post a ‘Latest Sighting’ on there already, on the Krauss’s Clubmoss. You can read the orchid latest sighting here and my clubmoss latest sighting here.

The beech woodland where the plant was growing was very nice except there was very little diversity of ground flora. I think this may be due to the very large population of deer, particularly the Fallow Deer, which have over-grazed the area. However, there were some nice patches of late-flowering Bluebells as well as Ground Ivy, Germander Speedwell and not-yet-flowering Wood-Sorrel. In fact I saw a couple of female Fallow Deer while we were there, although they were very shy and were gone before I could see more than their heads with their sensitive ears standing up rigidly, on high alert. Deer were hunted in Ashdown Forest in the past so they must have learnt to be very wary of humans even now when deer-hunting has been discontinued.

There were some very large and beautiful Beech trees in the woodland that seemed to support a plethora of life. In one tiny patch of about 3 square centimetres there were no less than 5 adult Athous haemorrhoidalis, a common beetle whose larvae feed on tree roots. I also watched my first Spotted Flycatcher of the year flycatching from the mighty limbs of a particularly grand Beech tree.

We carried on down the road, checking every beech clump on the left side of the road to see if we could spot the easily-missed orchids. Surely we were supposed to be looking on the left side of the road? My dad agreed and we continued, starting to lose hope. We soon reached a point which was surely much farther than the directions had intended. Where were they? We must have missed them. We gloomily trod back up to the car, disappointed that we hadn’t seen these special plants. My eyes drifted over to the side of the road we hadn’t been looking at, where I stopped suddenly. I stood staring at two beige plants with disbelief. We had found the two Bird’s-nest Orchids! They were looking exactly as they had in the photo on the latest sightings page on the SBRS website which was taken 8 days before. Here are some photos and a very short mini-documentary:

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Teifi Marshes, home to the Welsh Wildlife Centre

The week of 13th to the 17th of July, I went to Teifi Marshes, the home of the Welsh Wildlife Centre. It’s owned by the fourth largest Wildlife Trust in the UK, the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales. Nestled on the banks of the River Teifi between the town of Cardigan and the village of Cilgerran, Teifi Marshes is known for its Otters. We stayed in a tiny but cosy cottage near the visitor’s centre, with access to the reserve well after all the other guests had left. That meant we stood an even better chance of spotting Otters as they’re a nocturnal mammal, but we didn’t have much luck.

We arrived at our cottage at 5 in the afternoon and began the process of unpacking. But we didn’t get very far before I spotted two Scarlet Tiger moths sitting right in the open in a flower bed! They are classed as a ‘local’ species in my moth book, which means they are only found in less than 300 sites across the whole of the UK! They are called Scarlet Tiger because of the beautiful red hindwings, visible in the second photo. Scarlet Tiger is also a new species for my pan-species list, which I am hoping to expand this holiday.

Scarlet Tiger

Scarlet Tiger

Scarlet Tiger, showing hind wings.

Scarlet Tiger, showing hind wings.

A pan-species list is a list of species which covers all groups (fungi, plants, invertebrates, mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and amphibians) found in a certain place. My list is of all species found in Britain and I only started putting together my list this spring. It had 781 species at the beginning of this trip but we’ll see how it expands.

After everything was unpacked, I decided to explore the area close to the cottage. The visitor centre closes at 5pm, so I already almost had the whole place to myself! Right next to the cottage is a play area for small children. I found that it was full of wildlife too! Two small Toads were found but were hard to get a good look at as they hopped into a tussock of long grass as soon as I spotted them. I also found a lot of wildlife on the umbellifer-like plants around the play area, mostly Meadowsweet and Hogweed. A large larva had made itself a tunnel of silk from which it fed on the flowers of a Meadowsweet and when I disturbed it it quickly retreated into its tunnel. Lots of Hoverflies were enjoying the sweet nectar of the umbellifers, and there were especially large numbers of Marmalade Hoverfly darting about. Also, annoyingly, Horseflies, or Cleg Flies, were aplenty. I managed to fight them off for most of the duration of my walk, but their persistence paid off when one managed to bite my hand when I was looking at a Brown-lipped Snail!

The following morning it was still drizzly as it had been for the whole journey. I did manage an early morning walk to the river viewpoint though, with the hope of finding Otters. Unsuccessfully.

Both male and female Blackcaps were present, the male singing its socks off in a tree a metre away from me. Males and females are similar apart from one striking feature: the colour of their cap. The female’s and juvenile’s cap isn’t black at all, but in fact brown. The male’s cap is a glossy black though! During my adventures with bird ringing in southern England, I was fooled by a juvenile Blackcap. We had caught a brown-capped Blackcap in the net during a ringing demonstration, and my trainer asked me whether it was male or female. I confidently said “female!”, but had forgotten about juveniles. My trainer didn’t hesitate to point out a few minuscule black feathers in the cap, therefore making it a male!

Moving on from the Blackcaps, I was surprised to see a group of 5 Curlew fly over the river. I had first mistaken the silhouettes of the birds for those of gulls, which are abundant over the river. But their long, curved bills were the stand out feature when I looked through my binoculars! But then, out of the corner of my eye, a spotted a shape. It was swimming downstream, low in the water and diving regularly. Otter? Unfortunately, no. It was in fact a Cormorant, but it fooled me! It was the only Cormorant we saw on the trip which is surprising, I was thinking we’d see a lot more due to the abundance of large water bodies.

After breakfast, we embarked on another walk, longer this time. We went on the Wetland Trail, one of the most popular trails for wildlife spotting. It was marked as 2.8km on the map, but it was tiring after visiting all the hides. Throughout the walk we were spurred on by the soundtrack of Sedge Warbler song – the reedbeds punctuated by small shrubs are perfect for them! However the drizzle which was still coming down beckoned the snails onto the path. We had to watch our step the entire way as Brown-lipped, Garden and other snails saw this as an opportunity to cross to the other side. Sadly we saw nearly as many crushed shells as intact ones, other people didn’t seem to be paying attention. From then on I moved every snail I could to safety!

Most of the snails were crossing over the tarmacked path where most of the hides were. From the tarmacked path we spotted an Oystercatcher piping as it flew over the reedbeds and five more Curlew from a hide.

I must say that Eurasian Oystercatchers are currently my favourite waders. They often nest near human habitation, they have been known to nest in flower pots on patios and are sometimes approachable. They are an unmistakable wader with the mix of black and white and a bright red bill. They are found all over the country, inland and coastal, so they are seen more often than strictly coastal birds like Sanderlings. Also 12 species of Oystercatcher (genus Haematopus) are spread over the whole world, so it’s not only Europe which can enjoy them!

We had lunch at the Glasshouse Cafe in the visitor centre, from which you could see the nearby village of Cilgerran, which we walked to afterwards. The village was certainly different to the rural setting around our cottage but it was a chance to find some suburban wildlife: House Sparrows which were absent in the reserve. Also the loose stone walls harboured a lot of plants, including Maidenhair Spleenwort, Wall-rue and some hardy Herb Roberts.

The following morning got off to a good start. My dad found a moth in the sink when he got up, put it in one of my pots and showed me when I had breakfast. It was a Dark Arches moth which I have caught in the moth trap before at home. It may just be a coincidence but I think it is often found indoors more than other species. I think this because I have found another one at home, but not in the trap. It was in fact on one of our towels! Maybe they like the warmth of human habitation?

Today’s walk was to Poppit Sands, the closest patch of coastline to the reserve. It was near enough to low tide, and there were lots of shells on the beach. Many of them unidentified, I have little experience with shore life as we live far from the coast. We did see a few Compass Jellies though, which were spectacular:

Compass Jellyfish washed up on the beach

Compass Jellyfish washed up on the beach

There were lots of birds down by the beach. When we were just about to walk onto the beach I spotted a Red Kite circle over ‘the last pub before Ireland’ before heading west (in the direction of Ireland). The Red Kite was being mobbed by Corvids, namely Jackdaws and Carrion Crows, of which there were a lot. On the way back to the reserve I saw a Buzzard being mobbed by around a hundred Jackdaws! None, apart from one or two, were very persistent and gave up after a few minutes. Also from that pub we had a great view of a feeding Whimbrel, with a huge flock of Canada Geese. I was hoping to spot some dune fungi by the beach, but unfortunately none were to be seen.

I got up at 4:45 am the next morning because I had set the moth trap and was anxious to see what we’d caught.

  • 2 Brussels Laces. These were the only scarce moth we caught in the trap, and a new species for me. They’re quite a drab moth, similar to the Willow Beauty, but much smaller.
  • 2 Scalloped Oaks. I’ve caught their similar cousin, Scalloped Hazel, in the trap at home. Scalloped Hazels are browner and fly earlier in the year. The Scalloped Oaks look ‘fresher’:
Scalloped Oak

Scalloped Oak

  • 1 Elephant Hawk-moth. I was really pleased when I caught an Elephant Hawk-moth in the trap, as they seem to avoid me. It’s the first ever one I’ve caught in my trap, whereas other people have caught 22 in one night!
  • 2 Clouded Borders. I was really thinking we would catch more as I catch numbers in excess of 10 at home. They’re related to the magpies, Clouded Magpie and Magpie.
  • 1 Magpie. The Magpie we caught in the trap was the first I’ve ever seen and it was also the second largest moth in the trap, after the Elephant Hawk-moth. They’re larger than Clouded Borders and covered in spots instead of black patches.
  • 7 Uncertains. These are the common LBJs (Little Brown Jobs) of the moth world, but they have a great name!
  • 2 Riband Waves. There are two forms of the Riband Wave: the banded and non-banded. I find that they are both abundant but some nights I catch more of one than the other. Both Riband Waves we caught were non-banded.
  • 2 Buff-Tips. I am always amazed by their camouflage. When I discovered one on the bug house next to the moth trap in the morning I actually thought it was a twig!
  • 1 Buff Ermine. These are common moths and I never fail to catch them when I put the trap out at the right time of year.
  • 1 Buff Arches. This concluded the buff moths of the night, but it’s the prettiest of the three.
Buff Arches

Buff Arches

  • 1 Common Wainscot. This is quite a drab, pale moth which is average sized. It flies earlier in the year than other wainscots.
  • 1 Snout. Snouts are a large, odd moth. They actually look like the have a snout which gives them a comical appearance.
  • 1 Drinker. After catching one in the trap in Wales, the Drinker became my favourite moth. It also has a snout like the Snout, but when I saw it wiggle its nose it looked like it had just sneezed!
  • 2 Shaded Broad-bars. These confused me for a while as I have never caught them before. Their colour can be quite variable, ranging from yellow to brown.
  • 1 Spectacle. These moths are distinctive as they have marks at the front of their head resembling white-rimmed spectacles!
  • 1 Southern Wainscot. It was great to catch one of these as they are a localised species and a reedbed specialist, so this reserve is a great place for them!
  • 3 Lackeys. Two males and a female caught in a trap. The females are larger than the males and usually paler, but the colour is variable.

So not as many as I thought I would catch. But there were still a few new species for my list: Southern Wainscot, Shaded Broad-bar, Magpie, Lackey, and Brussels Lace.

For today’s walk we went to Cardigan Castle. Good for history but not so good for wildlife! The walk there was quite good though, as we followed the river most of the way. One of the highlights was when I spotted a lone Sand Martin fly upstream, had to pick out from the 100+ Swallows and House Martins also hawking above the river. It’s my first one this year! I also managed to find a Small Tortoiseshell flitting between buildings,  which I expect is one of the few I’m going to see this year as sadly they don’t seem to be doing well.

Unfortunately that was the end of our incredible holiday. Sadly no Otters, but that doesn’t matter as I was amazed by the amount of wildlife we saw in less than a week!

At the beginning of this post, I said that I was hoping to expand my pan-species list this week. I was very successful! I added around 50 new species, including 18 plants!

Introduction to Bryophytes

Bryophytes are mosses, liverworts and hornworts, and they are an amazing part of natural history. However, many people don’t know that, so this is why you should become interested in Bryophytes:

  • They are rather unrecorded. It is so easy  just to note the bryophytes you see on a short walk that it is hard to believe how few people actually do it. With a better understanding of them, they will be easier to conserve.
  • They can be found nearly anywhere! On trees, walls, houses, all over the place, even one or two on cars and underwater!
  • There are so many species! There are only 4 species of Hornwort, but you can find 763 species of mosses in the UK and nearly 300 Liverworts. Bryophytes love wet climates so that’s why Britain has about two-thirds of all European species!
  • Unlike some species which can only be studied some parts of the year, Bryophytes can be studied year-round. It is probably even easier to find Bryophytes in winter as they are much less likely to be covered by large plants!

I’ve only found 32 species so far and some can be quite difficult to ID, especially Sphagnums (bog mosses), therefore I recommend buying the British Bryological Society’s Field Guide for UK and Ireland. It can help you identify most of the species you find and has been put together by ‘a team of expert bryologists’. It includes keys, photographs, similar species, colour coding, drawings of key features etc.

It is easy to get started with finding Bryophytes, there isn’t too much equipment involved. The only thing beginners really need is a good hand lens but don’t worry if you don’t have that just yet, many species can be easily identified with the naked eye. I would suggest starting in your own garden, big or small, as there is bound to be many easy species there and is a good way to practise. But most of all: enjoy it!

Dotted Thyme-moss

Dotted Thyme-moss

Urn Haircap, my 32nd species

Urn Haircap, my 32nd species