Moth #300

After my recent trip to Portland Bird Observatory in Dorset, I added a fair few nice moth species such as the rare Scarce Bordered Straw. Then, following a couple of new additions from my garden light trap, my moth life list was left on 299. I was very close to a big number!

To be honest, I wasn’t expecting my 300th species until I next put out the light trap which would be in another few weeks. However, it was much sooner than that and very unexpected! My mum let me know that she had found a large moth on the wall, my first thought was ‘probably just another Large Yellow Underwing’ as they are very common at this time of year.

Although when I saw it I was quite surprised! It was indeed very large but definitely not a Large Yellow Underwing as I had expected. The abdomen was projecting beyond the wings, which were sandy-brown with black dots and markings. I was able to get it in a pot and with the help of my Concise Guide it was identified as a Bulrush Wainscot, Nonagria typhae.

It is widespread in the British Isles, but usually only encountered in suitable habitat. For the Bulrush Wainscot, this is reedbeds and marshy areas. We don’t live in a marshy area (or a reedbed!) however we do have some in our local nature reserve, Hedgecourt. The larvae of the Bulrush Wainscot feed inside Bulrush (Typha) stems which has only recently started to really colonise Hedgecourt and is greatly outnumbered by Common Reed (Phragmites australis). The very helpful website UK Moths also says that this species can sometimes wander quite far away from suitable habitats, so we can’t be certain that my moth came from Hedgecourt.

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The Bulrush Wainscot that I found inside my house.

Every species is bringing me closer to my Pan-species Listing target of 2000 by the end of the year. I need just over 200 more species to reach this tough target, so every species counts!

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Not always straightforward

During my Garden Bioblitz of the the 6th June, I found a moth case on a cotoneaster leaf. I tried to identify it by using this webpage and I thought it looked most like Coleophora trigeminella. I was very excited by this as the species hasn’t been recorded on Cotoneaster in the UK before, only in Europe. Could I have discovered a new foodplant for this species in Britain?

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I emailed the Surrey moth recorder, Mr Graham Collins, with news of my finds. I asked him whether it was likely to be Coleophora trigeminella or something else. He kindly responded saying that he didn’t think that the larval case belonged to this species but Coleophora serratella which is ‘probably the commonest species of British Coleophorid’ according to the UK Moths website. I was quite disappointed!

However, why was it on a cotoneaster leaf? The larvae usually feed on hazel, birch, elm or alder. It is most likely that the larvae fell from the foodplant (there is a birch tree straight above the cotoneaster) on to the leaf where it formed the case, or the larvae wandered off the leaf looking for a better place to create its case.

When I returned to the same leaf nearly a fortnight later, on the 18th June, I was given a huge surprise. The adult moth had emerged from the case overnight and was resting parallel to the case! It was so fresh in fact that the antennae were not resting forward in the typical coleophorid fashion but running backwards along the body! I sent this photo to Mr Collins.

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I thought that it was too light for Coleophora serratella and the ochre colour matched Coleophora trigeminella. Could I have found a species of moth that hasn’t been seen in Surrey for nearly half a century? Unfortunately that was not to be the case. Mr Collins responded writing that he now thought that the moth is either Coleophora flavipennella or Coleophora lutipennella. The larval stages of both of these moths feed on oak leaves, which makes sense as there are several large oak trees which also have branches above the cotoneaster bush. The larva probably fell from the leaves.

However, it is not possible to separate moths of those species without examination of the genitalia. For this I sent the moths off to Mr Collins by post and he kindly looked at them under the microscope. The genitalia point to Coleophora flavipennella, which I think might be the least common of the pair although I am not certain. The genitalia of C. flavipennella look like this:

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Compared to the genitalia of C. lutipennella:

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There is quite a lot of difference! This is a new species for me and I hope this blog post shows that often identification is not that straightforward.

(genitalia photos from http://www.mothdissection.co.uk)

A Murmuration to Remember!

Our first view was a group of around 500 Starlings flying above the reedbeds on the opposite side of Hedgecourt Lake, my local ‘patch’. More parties of chirruping birds started to fly in above our heads. Soon there were 1000-2000 swarming over the lake, but this was only the beginning.

Suddenly the whole group flew from the lake in the direction of the nearby farm and I was hoping they wouldn’t stay there. Fortunately a separate group started to form where the previous group was and that grew to about 5000.

The group that had gone to the farm returned in ten minutes to join the flock of 5000 and still more separate groups of a few hundred kept on joining. The flock reached 10000 at its climax and I was genuinely stunned and impressed. Unforgettable was the ‘plop, plop’ sound when the flock passed over my head: I was scared to look up!

Suddenly it all ended, all 10000 birds flew down into the reedbeds, how could they all fit? And the question I really want answered, is how they don’t collide with each other?!

I have found out that some believe that when one Starling changes speed or direction, all of the other Starlings respond by following that one Starling almost instantly. Others believe that a Starling copies its seven nearest neighbours. This shows that there isn’t one definite answer, but it would be interesting to find out. Something for the future?

I have also found out that Starlings mainly murmurate like this to avoid predators like Peregrines or Sparrowhawks as these predators find it hard to pick a target in the wreathing mass of birds. They group together to roost in the reedbeds to exchange information about good feeding spots and to keep warm at night.

I’m very lucky to have such an amazing spectacle not far at all from my house!

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Just a small proportion of the HUGE murmuration!